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Posts: 230
PRION DISEASE FOUND LURKING IN DEER MUSCLE

Subject: Prion disease found lurking in deer muscle
Date: January 26, 2006 at 11:44 am PST

Prion disease found lurking in deer muscle
19:00 26 January 2006
NewScientist.com news service
Debora MacKenzie

The infectious prions that cause Chronic Wasting Disease, an infection similar to BSE that afflicts North American deer and elk have been found in the parts of the animals that people eat. No one knows if CWD can jump to humans, but if it does hunters in affected areas might be at risk.

CWD was first diagnosed as a spongiform encephalopathy in captive deer and elk in Colorado in the 1970s, and in wild deer and elk in the region in the 1980s. But in the 1990s it spread widely within the elk farming industry, jumped to wild deer, and now affects two provinces of Canada and 13 US states.

Like the related sheep disease scrapie – though unlike BSE – CWD spreads from animal to animal, says Glenn Telling of the University of Kentucky at Lexington, US. Deer housed with infected animals, or fed infected brain experimentally, contract the disease.

Because of this there are fears that the CWD prion might be distributed widely in the deer’s tissues – as scrapie is in sheep. Efforts to find the infectious prion in the muscle of infected animals, by seeing whether antibodies to the prion could find any and bind on, have previously failed.

But Telling’s lab has now shown that diseased prions can reside in muscle of deer infected with CWD, by using transgenic mice.

Transgenic mice
The team replaced the gene for the normal mouse version of the prion protein with the normal gene from deer, so the mice made the normal, healthy deer protein. They then injected the mouse brains with tissue from infected deer. Twelve to 18 months later, the mice developed encephalopathy.

Tissues from both the infected deers' brains and thigh muscle caused disease. Muscle took slightly longer to cause disease than brain tissue, showing it had slightly less prion.

“We don’t know that it is transmitted in the wild by animals eating muscle from infected animals,” cautions Telling. “We now have to see where else the prion might be,” including saliva and even excrement, using more transgenic mice.

Brain warnings
“Because we tested deer that were already ill,” he told New Scientist, “we don’t know what the distribution of prion is in animals that are still incubating the disease.” Hunters have been warned by wildlife agencies not to kill and eat obviously ill animals, but an animal not yet showing signs of the disease might still carry the abnormal prion, albeit less of it.

It is also unknown whether people can catch encephalopathy by eating CWD-infected meat, as they can from eating BSE-tainted meat. Anecdotal reports that hunters develop the human prion disease CJD in unusual numbers have never been confirmed. State officials have issued warnings to hunters not to eat brain or spinal cord – the tissues most affected.

“If I were a hunter I would be cautious about eating deer in areas affected,” says Telling. But he notes that not much testing of wildlife has been done, and it is not clear how prevalent the infection is.

Journal reference: Science (DOI: 10.1126/science.1122864)

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8638

TSS Brick Wall,) Brick Wall,) Brick Wall,)

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PRION DISEASE FOUND LURKING IN DEER MUSCLE

I doubt this is of any real surprise to most legitimate researchers. I've suspected as much all along and though I am a biologist, I have no direct studies or research directly related to CWD or similar ailments. Do you know how many new viruses and such you are exposed to, each time you get a transfusion! If someone announced "new virus discovered in human blood!", would you be shocked? It hapens all the time, actually. Such findings are "common", to say the least. So this new "revelation" is no big shock to anyone that's involved in the research. -Jim

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Joined: 01/01/2006
Posts: 230
PRION DISEASE FOUND LURKING IN DEER MUSCLE

jim111 writes ;

>Do you know how many new viruses and such you are exposed to, each time you get a transfusion! If someone announced "new virus discovered in human blood!", would you be shocked? It hapens all the time, actually. <

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

New case of transfusion-associated vCJD in the United Kingdom

Editorial team (eurosurveillance.weekly@hpa.org.uk), Eurosurveillance
editorial office
A new case of probable variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has recently
been diagnosed in a patient in the United Kingdom (UK) who received a blood
transfusion from a donor who later developed vCJD [1]. This patient, who is
still alive and is under the care of doctors at the National Prion Clinic,
is the third case of vCJD infection in the UK associated with transfusion
[2].

The first case of vCJD disease associated with blood transfusion was
identified in December 2003 [3]. This patient developed vCJD six and a half
years after receiving a transfusion of red blood cells donated by an
individual who developed symptoms of vCJD three and a half years after
donation [4].

Another case of vCJD 'infection' was identified a few months later in a
recipient of red blood cells from a donor who developed symptoms of vCJD 18
months after the donation [5]. This second patient died from causes
unrelated to vCJD five years after transfusion. Postmortem investigations
found abnormal prion protein in the spleen and a cervical lymph node, but
not in the brain, and no pathological features of vCJD were found [6].

The most recent patient developed vCJD almost eight years after receiving a
transfusion of red blood cells from a donor who developed vCJD about 20
months after donating this blood [1]. Each of the three infected recipients
received blood from different donors.

To date, 160 cases of vCJD have been identified in the UK. Of these, 23 are
known to have donated blood before the diagnosis of vCJD. A collaborative
study (the Transfusion Medicine Epidemiology Review) between the National
Blood Services, the National CJD Surveillance Unit and the Office for
National Statistics has been conducted since 1997 to collect evidence about
transmission of CJD or vCJD via the blood supply [7]. Blood donations have
been traced for 18 of the 23 known donors, and 66 recipients of these
vCJD-implicated blood donations have been identified. Forty of these 66
recipients have died, including the two previous patients with probable
transfusion-associated vCJD [4,6]. The small group of living recipients of
vCJD-implicated blood transfusion have been informed of their potential
exposure to vCJD by blood transfusion. Some were contacted in late 2003 and
early 2004, and some in 2005. They were asked to take certain precautions to
reduce the risk of onward person-to-person transmission of vCJD during
medical procedures.

All three infected recipients identified to date received non-leucodepleted
red blood cells. Since October 1999, leucocytes have been removed from all
blood used for transfusion in the UK. The effect of leucodepletion on the
reduction of the risk of transmission of vCJD from an infected donor is
uncertain.

The risk of vCJD infectivity in blood has also resulted in certain other
groups of individuals being categorised as ‘at risk of vCJD for public
health purposes’. These groups have been informed and asked to take public
health precautions. The groups include certain recipients of plasma products
[8], individuals who have donated blood to patients who developed vCJD [9]
and certain recipients of blood from donors to patients who developed vCJD
[10]. To date, there have been no vCJD cases associated with receipt of
plasma products, or in these other groups of individuals that have been
categorised as ‘at risk’.

This third case of vCJD infection associated with blood transfusion provides
further evidence that vCJD can be transmitted between humans by blood
transfusion, although much remains unknown. This reinforces the importance
of the existing precautions that have been introduced to reduce the risk of
transmission of vCJD infection by blood and blood products [11].

Numbers of vCJD cases countries other than the UK remain small: by January
2006, there had been 15 cases reported in France, 4 in Ireland, 2 in the
United States, and 1 each in Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Saudi Arabia and Spain [12].

This article has been adapted from reference 2

References:

1. Health Protection Agency. New case of variant CJD associated with blood
transfusion. Press release 9 February 2006.
(http://www.hpa.org.uk/hpa/news/articles/press_releases/2006/060209_cjd.htm)
2. HPA. New case of transfusion-associated variant-CJD. Commun Dis Rep CDR
Wkly [serial online] 2006; 16(6): News. (http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdr)
3. CDR editorial team. Possible case of transfusion-associated variant CJD
in the United Kingdom. Eurosurveillance Weekly 2003; 7(51): 030128.
(http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2003/031218.asp#2)
4. Llewelyn CA, Hewitt PE, Knight RSG, Amar K, Cousens S, Mackenzie J, Will
RG. Possible transmission of variant CJD disease by blood transfusion.
Lancet 2004; 363:417-421.
5. Eurosurveillance. Possible second case of variant CJD prion protein
transmission from blood transfusion in the UK. Eurosurveillance Weekly 2004;
8(31): 040729. (http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2004/040729.asp#2)
6. Peden AH, Head MW, Ritchie DL, Bell JE, Ironside JW. Preclinical vCJD
after blood transfusion in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous patient. Lancet
2004; 364:527-529.
7. Transfusion Medicine Epidemiology Review (TMER) website.
(http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/TMER/TMER.htm)
8. Department of Health [London].Patient Notification Exercise Begins. Press
release 2004/0329, 9 September 2004.
(http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PressReleases/PressReleasesN
otices/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4088953&chk=4BSn4F)
9. Department of Health [London]. Notification exercise begins to reduce
risk of vCJD transmission. Press release 2005/0256, 20 July 2005.tss
(http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PressReleases/PressReleasesN
otices/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4116206&chk=4YsTe9)
10. Department of Health [London]. Next stage of notification exercise to
reduce risk of variant CJD transmission begins. Press release 2005/0404, 17
November 2005.
(http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PressReleases/PressReleasesN
otices/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4123496&chk=UnGWvb)
11. Department of Health [London]. Further precautions to protect blood
supply. Press release 2004/0104, 16 March 2004.
(http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PressReleases/PressReleasesN
otices/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4076608&chk=MTwE%2Bl)
12. Molesworth AM, Andrews NJ. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the
United Kingdom and elsewhere: situation at the end of 2005. Eurosurveillance
2006; 11(1): 060126. (http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2006/060126.asp#5)

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2006/060209.asp#2

TSS

----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Thursday, February 09, 2006 9:13 AM
Subject: Re: New case (3rd) of variant CJD associated with blood transfusion

> ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
#####################
>
> PRODUCT
> Source Plasma, Recall # B-0584-6
> CODE
> Units VL53767, ZZ031076, ZZ030881, ZZ03046, VL151413, VL151144, VL50837
> RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
> BioLife Plasma Services LP, Shreveport, LA, by facsimile dated October 6,
> 2003. Firm initiated recall is complete.
> REASON
> Source Plasma, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for
variant
> Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), was distributed.
> VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
> 7 units
> DISTRIBUTION
> NC
>
>
>
> END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR FEBRUARY 1, 2006
>
> ###
>
>
>
> http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00937.html
>
>
>
> PRODUCT
> Red Blood Cells, Recall # B-0552-6
> CODE
> Unit number: 4426304
> RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
> Florida's Blood Center, Inc., St. Petersburg, FL, by facsimile on July 8,
> 2005. Firm initiated recall is complete.
> REASON
> Blood product, collected from a donor who may have been at increased risk
> for new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD), was distributed.
> VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
> 1 unit
> DISTRIBUTION
> FL
>
>
>
>
>
> END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JANUARY 25, 2006
>
> ###
>
>
>
> http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00936.html
>
>
>
>
>
> ===================================
>
>
>
> PRODUCT
> a) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes
> Reduced, Recall # B-0492-6;
> b) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0497-6
> CODE
> a) and b) Unit number: 4101212
> RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
> Northwest Florida Blood Center, Inc., Pensacola, FL, by telephone and
> facsimile on March 7, 2003. Firm initiated recall is complete.
> REASON
> Blood products, collected from an unsuitable donor due to a history of
> travel to an area considered at increased risk of exposure to variant
> Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD), were distributed.
> VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
> 2 units
> DISTRIBUTION
> FL
>
> _______________________________
>
>
>
> END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JANUARY 18, 2006
>
> ###
>
>
>
> http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00935.html
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> PRODUCT
> Source Plasma, Recall # B-0391-6
> CODE
> Unit number: 7030260750
> RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
> ZLB Bioplasma, Inc., San Antonio, TX, by facsimile and telephone on
> September 29, 2003. Firm initiated recall is complete.
> REASON
> Blood product, which was collected from a donor who was deferred due to
risk
> factors associated with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) travel,
was
> distributed.
> VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
> 1 unit
> DISTRIBUTION
> FL
>
> _______________________________
>
>
>
>
>
> PRODUCT
> a) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes Reduced
> Recall # B-0456-6;
> b) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0457-6
> CODE
> a) Unit number: 06FR39967;
> b) Unit numbers: 06FR37676, 06FR39967
> RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
> American National Red Cross, Southern California Region, Pomona,
California,
> by telephone on June 2, 2002, and by letter dated, June 20, 2002, and by
> facsimile transmission dated June 19, 2002. Firm initiated recall is
> complete.
> REASON
> Blood products, collected from a donor who was at increased risk of
variant
> Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed.
> VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
> 3 units
> DISTRIBUTION
> CA and Switzerland
>
> _______________________________
>
>
>
>
>
> END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR JANUARY 4, 2006
>
> ###
>
>
>
>
>
> http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00933.html
>
>
>
> TSS
>
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
> To:
> Sent: Thursday, February 09, 2006 8:43 AM
> Subject: New case (3rd) of variant CJD associated with blood transfusion
>
>
> ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
> #####################
>
>
> Press Statement
>
> 9 February 2006
>
> New case of variant CJD associated with blood transfusion
>
> A new case of variant-CJD associated with a blood transfusion has recently
> been diagnosed. The patient developed symptoms of vCJD about 8 years after
> receiving a blood transfusion from a donor who developed symptoms of vCJD
> about 20 months after donating this blood. The patient is still alive and
is
> under the care of doctors at the National Prion Clinic.
>
> This third occurrence of vCJD infection associated with blood transfusion
is
> further evidence that vCJD can be transmitted between humans by blood
> transfusion. All three cases to date relate to the transfusion of blood
> components and not treatment with plasma products.
>
> The patient is one of a small number (less than 30) of living individuals
> who are known to have received a blood transfusion in the UK from a donor
> who later developed vCJD. All these individuals have previously been
> informed of their potential exposure to vCJD and asked to take certain
> precautions to reduce the chance of passing on vCJD on to other people via
> healthcare procedures, such as surgery.
>
> Professor Peter Borriello, Director of the HPA's Centre for Infections
said,
> “The occurrence of a third case of vCJD infection in a small group of
> patients like this suggests that blood transfusion from an infected donor
> may be a relatively efficient mechanism for the transmission of vCJD,
> although much still remains unknown. This underlines the importance of the
> existing precautions that have been introduced to reduce the risk of
> transmitting vCJD infection through blood transfusion.
>
> “We have been in contact with the doctors caring for the other patients
who
> have been exposed to blood transfusion from donors who later developed
vCJD.
> This is to ensure that these patients are informed of this new development
> and have access to the latest information and to specialist advice about
> their situation.”
>
> Dr Angela Robinson, Medical Director of NHS Blood and Transplant said,
“Our
> thoughts go out to the patient and their family. Our prime concern is
always
> the safety of patients through maintaining the quality of blood and we
have
> introduced a range of precautionary measures against the risk of vCJD.
Blood
> transfusion is often a life saving treatment and the benefit of receiving
a
> blood transfusion when needed far outweighs any possible risks”
>
> vCJD is a rare disease, and only less than 2% of the 160 vCJD cases to
date
> in the UK have been associated with blood transfusion.
>
>
>
> Notes to Editors
>
> 1. ‘Blood Transfusion' means transfusion with labile blood components
(e.g.
> red cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). This latest case (and the
> previous two referred to) relate to transfusion of blood components and
not
> treatment with plasma products (i.e. products that are manufactured from
> plasma). To date, no case of vCJD has been associated with treatment with
> plasma-products (e.g. clotting factors used to treat individuals with
> bleeding disorders such as haemophilia).
>
> 2. This third case has been classified by the National CJD Surveillance
Unit
> (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk ) as a ‘probable' case of vCJD. Of the 154 vCJD
> cases that have died, all 110 that have undergone post-mortem (44 have
not)
> have been ‘confirmed' by neuropathological examination (examination of
brain
> tissue).
>
> 3. The first clinical case of vCJD associated with transfusion was
> identified in December 2003. A case vCJD 'infection' associated with
> transfusion was identified a few months later. (the patient had no
symptoms
> but evidence of infection (abnormal prion proteins) was identified in a
post
> mortem investigation. The individual died from causes unrelated to vCJD.
>
> 4. Following the first case of vCJD associated with a blood transfusion in
> 2003, the Department of Health asked all recipients of blood transfusions
> not to donate blood as a precautionary measure to protect the blood supply
> from vCJD.
>
> 5. Patients who have received blood transfusion (i.e. blood components)
and
> certain patients who have received plasma products made from blood donated
> by a donor who later developed vCJD are informed that they are considered
to
> be ‘at risk for public health purposes' and are asked to take the
following
> precautions to reduce the chance of passing on vCJD to other people:
>
> Not to donate blood, tissues or organs and
> To inform their healthcare providers of their ‘at-risk' status so that
> special procedures may be arranged for certain instruments used in their
> healthcare
> 6. A range of measures have been put in place by the Department of Health
to
> minimise the possible risk of VCJD being passed through blood:
>
>
>
> Since 1997 all cases of vCJD that are reported to the National CJD
> Surveillance Unit and diagnosed as having ‘probable' vCJD, result in a
> search of the UK Blood Services blood donor records. If the patient has
> donated blood, any unused parts of that blood are immediately removed from
> stock. The fate of all used components of blood from the donor is traced,
> and surviving recipients informed of their risk.
> In July 1998, the Department of Health announced that plasma for the
> manufacture of blood products, such as clotting factors, would be obtained
> from non-UK sources.
> Since October 1999, white blood cells (which may carry the greatest risk
of
> transmitting vCJD) have been removed from all blood used for transfusion.
> In August 2002 the Department of Health announced that fresh frozen plasma
> for treating babies and young children born after 1 January 1996 would be
> obtained from the USA, extended to all children under 16 years of age
> (Summer 2005).
> In December 2002, the Department of Health completed its purchase of the
> largest remaining independent US plasma collector, Life Resources
> Incorporated. This secures long-term supplies of non-UK blood plasma for
the
> benefit of NHS patients.
> Since April 2004, blood donations have not been accepted from people who
> have themselves received a blood transfusion in the UK since 1980. This
has
> been extended to include apheresis donors and donors who are unsure if
they
> had previously had a blood transfusion (August 2004).
> The UK Blood Services continue to promote the appropriate use of blood and
> tissues and alternatives throughout the NHS.
>
>
> 7. The likelihood of a person who may be infected with vCJD going onto
> develop symptoms of the disease is uncertain, and may depend on individual
> susceptibility. It is possible that infected individuals may never develop
> symptoms.
>
> 8. For further information contact the HPA press office on 0208 327
> 7098/7097/6055
>
> 9. The National Prion Unit is based at The Hospital for Neurology and
> Neurosurgery, Queen Square , London http://www.nationalprionclinic.org/
>
>
>
> 10. For further information about vCJD go to:
>
> http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/cjd/menu.htm
>
> http://www.dh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/CJD/fs/en
>
> http://www.blood.co.uk/
>
> http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk
>
> http://www.nationalprionclinic.org/
>
>
>
>
>
>
http://www.hpa.org.uk/hpa/news/articles/press_releases/2006/060209_cjd.h...
> s
>
> #################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
> ####################
>
> #################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
####################
>

#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################

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