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MAD COW DISEASE USA UPDATE DECEMBER 8, 2006

Volume 12, Number 12–December 2006

PERSPECTIVE

On the Question of Sporadic

or Atypical Bovine SpongiformEncephalopathy and

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Paul Brown,* Lisa M. McShane,† Gianluigi Zanusso,‡ and Linda Detwiler§

Strategies to investigate the possible existence of sporadic

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) require

systematic testing programs to identify cases in countries

considered to have little or no risk for orally acquired disease,

or to detect a stable occurrence of atypical cases in

countries in which orally acquired disease is disappearing.

To achieve 95% statistical confidence that the prevalence

of sporadic BSE is no greater than 1 per million (i.e., the

annual incidence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

[CJD] in humans) would require negative tests in 3 million

randomly selected older cattle. A link between BSE and

sporadic CJD has been suggested on the basis of laboratory

studies but is unsupported by epidemiologic observation.

Such a link might yet be established by the discovery

of a specific molecular marker or of particular combinations

of trends over time of typical and atypical BSE and various

subtypes of sporadic CJD, as their numbers are influenced

by a continuation of current public health measures that

exclude high-risk bovine tissues from the animal and

human food chains.

SNIP...

Sporadic CJD
The possibility that at least some cases of apparently sporadic CJD might be due to infection by sporadic cases of BSE cannot be dismissed outright. Screening programs needed to identify sporadic BSE have yet to be implemented, and we know from already extant testing programs that at least a proportion of infected animals have no symptoms and thus would never be identified in the absence of systematic testing. Thus, sporadic BSE (or for that matter, sporadic disease in any mammalian species) might be occurring on a regular basis at perhaps the same annual frequency as sporadic CJD in humans, that is, in the range of 1 case per million animals.

Whether humans might be more susceptible to atypical forms of BSE cannot be answered at this time. Experimentally transmitted BASE shows shorter incubation periods than BSE in at least 1 breed of cattle, bovinized transgenic mice, and Cynomolgus monkeys (12,13). In humanized transgenic mice, BASE transmitted, whereas typical BSE did not transmit (13). Paradoxically, the other major phenotype (H) showed an unusually long incubation period in bovinized transgenic mice (12).

The limited experimental evidence bearing on a possible relationship between BSE and sporadic CJD is difficult to interpret. The original atypical BASE strain of BSE had a molecular protein signature very similar to that of 1 subtype (type 2 M/V) of sporadic CJD in humans (5). In another study, a strain of typical BSE injected into humanized mice encoding valine at codon 129 showed a glycopattern indistinguishable from the same subtype of sporadic CJD (15). In a third study, the glycopatterns of both the H and L strains of atypical BSE evidently did not resemble any of the known sporadic CJD subtypes (12).

To these molecular biology observations can be added the epidemiologic data accumulated during the past 30 years. The hypothesis that at least some cases of apparently sporadic CJD are due to unrecognized BSE infections cannot be formally refuted, but if correct, we might expect by now to have some epidemiologic evidence linking BSE to at least 1 cluster of apparently sporadic cases of CJD. Although only a few clusters have been found (and still fewer published), every proposed cluster that has been investigated has failed to show any common exposure to bovines. For that matter, no common exposure has been shown to any environmental vehicles of infection, including the consumption of foodstuffs from bovine, ovine, and porcine sources, the 3 livestock species known to be susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Additional negative evidence comes from several large case-control studies in which no statistically significant dietary differences were observed between patients with sporadic CJD and controls (16,17).

On the other hand, the difficulty of establishing a link between BSE and CJD may be compounded by our ignorance of the infectious parameters of a sporadic form of BSE (e.g., host range, tissue distribution of infectivity, route of transmission, minimum infectious dose for humans, whether single or multiple). Presumably, these parameters would resemble those of variant CJD; that is, high infectivity central nervous system and lymphoreticular tissues of an infected cow find their way into products consumed by humans. Transmissions that might have occurred in the past would be difficult to detect because meat products are generally not distributed in a way that results in detectable geographic clusters.

Barring the discovery of a specific molecular signature (as in variant CJD), the most convincing clue to an association will come from the observation of trends over time of the incidence of typical and atypical BSE and of sporadic and variant CJD. With 4 diseases, each of which could have increasing, unchanging, or decreasing trends, there could be 81 (34) possible different combinations. However, it is highly likely that the trends for typical BSE and variant CJD will both decrease in parallel as feed bans continue to interrupt recycled contamination. The remaining combinations are thus reduced to 9 (32), and some of them could be highly informative.

For example, if the incidence of atypical BSE declines in parallel with that of typical BSE, its candidacy as a sporadic form of disease would be eliminated (because sporadic disease would not be influenced by current measures to prevent oral infection). If, on the other hand, atypical BSE continues to occur as typical BSE disappears, this would be a strong indication that it is indeed sporadic, and if in addition at least 1 form of what is presently considered as sporadic CJD (such as the type 2 M/V subtype shown to have a Western blot signature like BASE) were to increase, this would suggest (although not prove) a causal relationship (Figure 5).

Recognition of the different forms of BSE and CJD depends upon continuing systematic testing for both bovines and humans, but bovine testing will be vulnerable to heavy pressure from industry to dismantle the program as the commercial impact of declining BSE cases ceases to be an issue. Industry should be aware, however, of the implications of sporadic BSE. Its occurrence would necessitate the indefinite retention of all of the public health measures that exclude high-risk bovine tissues from the animal and human food chains, whereas its nonoccurrence would permit tissues that are now destroyed to be used as before, once orally acquired BSE has disappeared.

SNIP...

PLEASE READ FULL TEXT ;

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no12/06-0965.htm?s_cid=eid06_0965_e

3:00 Afternoon Refreshment Break, Poster and Exhibit Viewing in the Exhibit
Hall

3:30 Transmission of the Italian Atypical BSE (BASE) in Humanized Mouse

Models Qingzhong Kong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology, Case Western Reserve
University

Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is an atypical BSE strain
discovered recently in Italy, and similar or different atypical BSE cases
were also reported in other countries. The infectivity and phenotypes of
these atypical BSE strains in humans are unknown. In collaboration with
Pierluigi Gambetti, as well as Maria Caramelli and her co-workers, we have
inoculated transgenic mice expressing human prion protein with brain
homogenates from BASE or BSE infected cattle. Our data shows that about half
of the BASE-inoculated mice became infected with an average incubation time
of about 19 months; in contrast, none of the BSE-inoculated mice appear to
be infected after more than 2 years. ***These results indicate that BASE is
transmissible to humans and suggest that BASE is more virulent than
classical BSE in humans.

6:30 Close of Day One

http://www.healthtech.com/2007/tse/day1.asp

SEE STEADY INCREASE IN SPORADIC CJD IN THE USA FROM
1997 TO 2006. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, with phenotype
of 'UNKNOWN' strain growing. ...

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/resources-casereport.html

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last
week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance
collection.

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively
SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/1006-4240t1.htm

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/2006-4240t1.pdf

JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY

MARCH 26, 2003

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States

Email Terry S. Singeltary:

flounder@wt.net

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&h...

BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7220/1312/b#EL2

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/320/7226/8/b#EL1

[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk
Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of
Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf

[Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/2006-0011/2006-0011-1.pdf

THE SEVEN SCIENTIST REPORT ***

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0273/02n-0273-EC244-Attach-1...

PAUL BROWN M.D.

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0273/02n-0273-c000490-vol40.pdf

9 December 2005
Division of Dockets Management (RFA-305)

SEROLOGICALS CORPORATION
James J. Kramer, Ph.D.
Vice President, Corporate Operations

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0273/02n-0273-c000383-01-vol...

Embassy of Japan
http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0273/02N-0273-EC240.htm

Dockets Entered on December 22, 2005
2005D-0330, Guidance for Industry and FDA Review Staff on Collection of
Platelets
by Automated ... EC 203, McDonald's Restaurants Corporation, Vol #:, 34 ...
http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/05/Dec05/122205/122205.htm

03-025IF 03-025IF-631 Linda A. Detwiler [PDF]
Page 1. 03-025IF 03-025IF-631 Linda A. Detwiler Page 2. Page 3. Page 4.
Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page 10. Page 11. Page 12.
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IF/03-025IF-631.pdf

03-025IF 03-025IF-634 Linda A. Detwiler [PDF]
Page 1. 03-025IF 03-025IF-634 Linda A. Detwiler Page 2.
Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8.
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IF/03-025IF-634.pdf

Page 1 of 17 9/13/2005 [PDF]
... 2005 6:17 PM To: fsis.regulationscomments@fsis.usda.gov Subject: [Docket
No. 03-025IFA]
FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food ...
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf

03-025IFA 03-025IFA-6 Jason Frost [PDF]
... Zealand Embassy COMMENTS ON FEDERAL REGISTER 9 CFR Parts 309 et al
[Docket No. 03-
025IF] Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and
...
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-6.pdf

In its opinion of 7-8 December 2000 (EC 2000), the SSC ... [PDF]
Page 1. Linda A. Detwiler, DVM 225 Hwy 35 Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 Phone:
732-741-2290
Cell: 732-580-9391 Fax: 732-741-7751 June 22, 2005 FSIS Docket Clerk US ...

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IF/03-025IF-589.pdf

----- Original Message -----
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
To: FREAS@CBER.FDA.GOV
Cc: william.freas@fda.hhs.gov ; rosanna.harvey@fda.hhs.gov
Sent: Wednesday, November 29, 2006 1:24 PM
Subject: TSE advisory committee for the meeting December 15, 2006 [TSS SUBMISSION]

November 29, 2006

Greetings FDA, DHH, Dr. Freas, and Dr. Harvey et al,

a kind and warm Holiday Greetings to you all.

i kindly wish to submit the following to the TSE advisory committee for the meeting December 15, 2006,
about the assessment for potential exposure to vCJD in human plasma-derived antihemophilic factor (FVIII) products
manufactured from U.S. plasma donors and related communication material ;

http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/01jan20061800/edocket.access.gpo...

i see the media picked up on this as a 'low risk', from what the gov. agency
perceived to be to them;

http://www.newsday.com/news/health/ats-ap_health14nov27,0,7955259.story?...

however, i seem to disagree. from my primitive ciphering, i see it another
way. this is a huge catastrophic risk. 3 in 160 is 1.9%. so call that 2%
which is 1 in 50 or twenty per thousand or 20,000 per million. also, what
about the mixed genotypes/mixed susceptibility? what about the silent
carriers that donated tainted blood? what about the sporadic CJDs of UNKNOWN
strain or phenotype? this risk assessment is just more BSe to me. just
another in a long line of industry fed crap. i pray that my assessment is
the one that is wrong. but it is THEY who roll the dice with your life. it
is THEY who refuse to regulate an industry that has run amok. just from a
recall aspect of potentially tainted blood, and these are just recent recalls ;

PRODUCT
Source Plasma, Recall # B-0054-7
CODE
Units: 03MMNC5465, 03MMNC6361, 03MMNC6801, 03MMNC7510, 03MMNC7891,
03MMNC8252, 03MMNC8801, 03MMNC9144, 03MMND1122, 03MMND1478, 03MMND1969,
03MMND2350, 03MMND2825, 03MMND3211, 03MMND3708, 03MMND4072, 03MMND4588,
03MMND4831, 03MMND5320, 03MMND5719, 03MMND6268, 03MMND6683, 03MMND7228,
03MMND7656, 03MMND8211, 03MMND8652, 03MMND9195, 03MMND9618, 03MMNE0628,
03MMNE0884, 03MMNE1597, 03MMNE1979, 03MMNE2644, 03MMNE3064, 03MMNE3707,
03MMNE4122, 03MMNE4750, 03MMNE5080, 03MMNE5876, 03MMNE6218, 03MMNE7189,
03MMNE7587, 03MMNE8027, 03MMNE8645, 03MMNE9029, 03MMNE9641, 03MMNE9979,
03MMNF0491, 03MMNF0685, 03MMNF0937, 03MMNF1260, 04MMNA0351, 04MMNA0707,
04MMNA1241, 04MMNA1650, 04MMNA2291, 04MMNA2646, 04MMNA3340, 04MMNA3719,
04MMNA4312, 04MMNA4683, 04MMNA5298, 04MMNA5750, 04MMNA6407, 04MMNA6816,
04MMNA7482, 04MMNA7915, 04MMNA8632, 04MMNA9076, 04MMNA9723, 04MMNB0063,
04MMNB0696, 04MMNB1100, 04MMNB1845, 04MMNB2285, 04MMNB3035, 04MMNB3485,
04MMNB4213, 04MMNB4672, 04MMNB5841, 04MMNB6652, 04MMNB7162, 04MMNB7930,
04MMNB8453, 04MMNB9239, 04MMNB9747, 04MMNC0456, 04MMNC0931, 04MMNC1578
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
BioLife Plasma Services, L.P., Mankato, MN, by facsimile on June 4, 2004.
Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for new
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
89 units
DISTRIBUTION
CA and Austria

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR October 25, 2006

###

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00975.html

USA FDA MAD COW BLOOD HUMANS RECALL (these are dime a dozen)

SNIP...END PART 1 OF 6 ......TSS

PART 5

----- Original Message -----
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. ; FREAS@CBER.FDA.GOV
Cc: william.freas@fda.hhs.gov ; rosanna.harvey@fda.hhs.gov ; Dave Cavenaugh ; ??? ; Jacqueline Ostfeld ; Jaiok Kim ; hansmi@consumer.org ; Mariko Toya ; Mike Coulthart ; Julie Rawlings
Sent: Thursday, December 07, 2006 9:07 PM
Subject: Re: TSE advisory committee for the meeting December 15, 2006 [TSS 5th FINAL SUBMISSION DECEMBER 12, 2006]

The Lancet 2006; 368:2061-2067

DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69835-8

Articles

Clinical presentation and pre-mortem diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with blood transfusion: a case report

Stephen J Wroe FRCP a b, Suvankar Pal MRCP a b, Durrenajaf Siddique MRCP a b, Harpreet Hyare FRCR a b, Rebecca Macfarlane MRCS a b, Susan Joiner MSc b, Jacqueline M Linehan BSc b, Sebastian Brandner MRCPath b, Jonathan DF Wadsworth PhD b, Patricia Hewitt FRCPath c and Prof John Collinge FRS a b

Summary
Background
Concerns have been raised that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) might be transmissible by blood transfusion. Two cases of prion infection in a group of known recipients of transfusion from donors who subsequently developed vCJD were identified post-mortem and reported in 2004. Another patient from this at-risk group developed neurological signs and was referred to the National Prion Clinic.

Methods
The patient was admitted for investigation and details of blood transfusion history were obtained from the National Blood Service and Health Protection Agency; after diagnosis of vCJD, the patient was enrolled into the MRC PRION-1 trial. When the patient died, brain and tonsil tissue were obtained at autopsy and assessed for the presence of disease-related PrP by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry.

Findings
A clinical diagnosis of probable vCJD was made; tonsil biopsy was not done. The patient received experimental therapy with quinacrine, but deteriorated and died after a clinical course typical of vCJD. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis and showed prion infection of the tonsils.

Interpretation
This case of transfusion-associated vCJD infection, identified ante-mortem, is the third instance from a group of 23 known recipients who survived at least 5 years after receiving a transfusion from donors who subsequently developed vCJD. The risk to the remaining recipients of such tranfusions is probably high, and these patients should be offered specialist follow-up and investigation. Tonsil biopsy will allow early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis in other iatrogenically exposed individuals at high risk, as in those with primary infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions.

Affiliations

a. National Prion Clinic, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
b. MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
c. National Blood Service, London, UK

Correspondence to: Prof John Collinge

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673606698358/ab...

TSS

----- Original Message -----
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
To: FREAS@CBER.FDA.GOV
Cc: william.freas@fda.hhs.gov ; rosanna.harvey@fda.hhs.gov ; Dave Cavenaugh ; BLOODCJD@YAHOOGROUPS.COM ; Phyllis.Fong@usda.gov ; ??? ; DebbieOney@aol.com ; Jacqueline Ostfeld ; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ; Jaiok Kim ; hansmi@consumer.org ; Richards, Kate (SEAC) ; Ravirajan, Chelliah (SEAC) ; Keep, Pat (SEAC) ; Perry, Susan (SEAC) ; Mariko Toya ; Mike Coulthart ; cjdvoice@yahoogroups.com ; Julie Rawlings
Sent: Thursday, December 07, 2006 11:10 AM
Subject: TSE advisory committee for the meeting December 15, 2006 [TSS 4TH FINAL SUBMISSION DECEMBER 12, 2006]

TSE advisory committee for the meeting December 15, 2006 [TSS 4TH FINAL SUBMISSION DECEMBER 12, 2006]

Greetings again Dr. Freas et al ;

FDA CERTIFIED MAD COW BLOOD RECALLS ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR December 6, 2006

PRODUCT
a) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes Reduced, Recall # B-0283-7;
b) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0284-7
CODE
a) and b) Unit: 4037982
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Lifeshare Blood Centers, Beaumont, TX, by fax on November 10, 2005. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, collected from a donor considered to be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
2 units
DISTRIBUTION
TX and Switzerland
______________________________

PRODUCT
a) Red Blood Cells, Recall # B-0330-7;
b) Cryoprecipitated AHF, Recall # B-0331-7;
c) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0332-7
CODE
a), b), and c) Unit: 5575374
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Recalling Firm: LifeSource, Glenview, IL., by telephone or facsimile on June 14, 2006 and June 16, 2006.
Manufacturer: LifeSource Oak Lawn, Oak Lawn, IL. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for new variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (nvCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
3 units
DISTRIBUTION
IL and Switzerland

______________________________

PRODUCT
Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0366-7
CODE
Unit: 6972331
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Florida’s Blood Center, Inc., Orlando, FL, by facsimile on September 3, 2002. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood product, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD), was distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
1 unit
DISTRIBUTION
Austria

______________________________
PRODUCT
a) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes Reduced, Recall # B-0367-7;
b) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0368-7
CODE
a) and b) Unit: 3243882
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Florida’s Blood Center, Inc., Orlando, FL, by telephone on July 22, 2002 or by facsimile on September 4, 2002. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD), was distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
2 units
DISTRIBUTION
FL and Austria

______________________________

PRODUCT
Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0403-7
CODE
Unit: 03KP25041
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
American National Red Cross, Southern Region, Atlanta, GA, by facsimile dated July 23, 2003. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood product, which was collected from an unsuitable donor based on risk factors for variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (vCJD), was distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
1 unit
DISTRIBUTION
Switzerland

______________________________

PRODUCT
a) Red Blood Cells, Recall # B-0422-7;
b) Red Blood Cells (Apheresis) Leukocytes Reduced, Recall # B-0423-7;
c) Platelets Pheresis Leukocytes Reduced, Recall # B-0424-7;
d) Fresh Frozen Plasma (Apheresis), Recall # B-0425-7
CODE
a) Unit: 4547142;
b) Unit: 4786424, 4757201, 4650003 and 4658564;
c) Unit: 4947135 (parts 1 and 2);
d) Unit: 4786424, 4757201, 4650003, 4663954, 4652404, 4658564 and 4547142
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Oklahoma Blood Institute, Sylvan N. Goldman Center, Oklahoma City, OK, by facsimile on September 19, 2005. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, which were collected from a donor who may be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
14 units
DISTRIBUTION
OK and NY

______________________________
PRODUCT
a) Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes Reduced, Recall # B-0426-7;
b) Recovered Plasma, Recall # B-0427-6
CODE
a) and b) Unit: 4957648
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Oklahoma Blood Institute, Sylvan N. Goldman Center, Oklahoma City, OK, by facsimile on April 26, 2005. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, which were collected from a donor who may be at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
2 units
DISTRIBUTION
CA and Switzerland

______________________________
PRODUCT
Source Plasma, Recall # B-0428-7
CODE
Unit numbers: CZ002370, CZ002228, CZ002075, CZ001939, CZ001815, CZ001606, CZ001446, CZ001321, CZ001174, CZ001023, CZ000429, 05BOH8576, 05BOHB8345, 05BOHB7973, 05BOHB7506, 05BOHB7237, 05BOHB6811, 05BOHB6587, 05BOHB2953, 05BOHA9332, 05BOHA8899, 05BOHA8411, 05BOHA7656, 05BOHA7425, 05BOHA6814, 05BOHA6254, 05BOHA5564, 05BOHA4492, 05BOHA4107, 05BOHA3933, 05BOHA3374, 05BOHA2517, 05BOHA1831, 05BOHA1470, 05BOHA1244, 05BOHA0819, and 05BOHA0324
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Bio-Blood Components, Inc., Mankato, MN, by facsimile on February 6, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Blood products, collected from a donor who was at increased risk for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), were distributed.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
37 units
DISTRIBUTION
CA and Austria

snip...end...TSS

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR December 6, 2006

###

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2006/ENF00981.html

Prion infections, blood and transfusions

Adriano Aguzzi* and Markus Glatzel

Prion infections lead to invariably fatal diseases of the CNS, including

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, bovine spongiform

encephalopathy (BSE), and scrapie in sheep. There have been hundreds

of instances in which prions have been transmitted iatrogenically among

humans, usually through neurosurgical procedures or administration of

pituitary tissue extracts. Prions have not generally been regarded as bloodborne

infectious agents, and case-control studies have failed to identify

CJD in transfusion recipients. Previous understanding was, however,

questioned by reports of prion infections in three recipients of blood

donated by individuals who subsequently developed variant CJD. On

reflection, hematogenic prion transmission does not come as a surprise, as

involvement of extracerebral compartments such as lymphoid organs and

skeletal muscle is common in most prion infections, and prions have been

recovered from the blood of rodents and sheep. Novel diagnostic strategies,

which might include the use of surrogate markers of prion infection, along

with prion removal strategies, might help to control the risk of iatrogenic

prion spread through blood transfusions. ...

snip...

Last, despite all epidemiological evidence to

the contrary, patients who are methionine/valine

heterozygous at codon 129 of the PRNP gene are

susceptible to infection with vCJD prions, which

raises several important questions. Is the virulence

of BSE prions enhanced when passaged

from human to human, as opposed to the

original bovine to human situation? Passaging

experiments of scrapie infectivity between mice

and hamsters indicate that this scenario is highly

plausible.6 Even more importantly, can vCJD

infection of heterozygous individuals establish

a permanent subclinical carrier state? Although

this situation might constitute a best-case

scenario for the infected individuals, it could be

disastrous from an epidemiological viewpoint,

as it might lead to an unrecognized and possibly

self-sustaining epidemic. ...

snip... full text ;

JUNE 2006 VOL 2 NO 6 AGUZZI AND GLATZEL NATURE CLINICAL PRACTICE NEUROLOGY 329

http://www.nature.com/clinicalpractice/neuro

Pathogenesis of prion diseases:

current status and future outlook

Adriano Aguzzi and Mathias Heikenwalder

snip...

Abstract | The prion, a conformational variant of a host protein, is the infectious particle

responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), a fatal neurodegenerative

disease of humans and animals. The principal target of prion pathology is the brain, yet most

TSEs also display prion replication at extra-cerebral locations, including secondary lymphoid

organs and sites of chronic inflammation. Despite significant progress in our understanding

of this infectious agent, many fundamental questions relating to the nature of the prion,

including the mechanism of replication and the molecular events underlying brain damage,

remain unanswered. Here we focus on the unresolved issues pertaining to prion

pathogenesis, particularly on the role played by the immune system.

snip...

Prion transmission through blood

Prion infectivity can reside in the blood of sheep and

humans. Moreover, prions were reported to be transmitted

by animal blood transfusion prior to the onset of clinical

signs114,124. This potential for inadvertent transmission

of the vCJD agent to humans by blood transfusion was

often regarded as a ‘hypothetical’ risk. However, we now

know that the risk is not hypothetical, and three cases

of transfusion-related transmission of vCJD have been

reported11,125,126, with the likelihood of additional cases in

the future125. Although the number of affected individuals

is small, it represents a high proportion of the maximum

number of possible cases, based on the number of people

that are known to have received prion-contaminated

blood. Consequently, the possible contamination of blood

products with prions will be a significant problem for

transfusion medicine for the foreseeable future. Screening

for contaminated blood products will become important

when the appropriate methodologies are available. In

addition, focusing research on the following questions will

be crucial to tackling this problem effectively: first, which

blood-borne cells have prion infectivity?; second,

which plasma proteins associate with prions127?; third,

are there strain- and species-specific differences between

sheep and humans in terms of the distribution and stability

of blood-borne prions?; fourth, when — following initial

infection — does prion infectivity arise in blood?; and

finally, do generic or specific inflammatory states increase

the likelihood of blood-borne prion infectivity?

snip...

The future of prion science

Considerable knowledge on the biology of prions has

been amassed over the past decade, yet many questions

remain unanswered, including some relating to the

most basic aspects of prion biology. What is the precise

physical nature of the prion? What is the biochemical

basis of prion strains? What factors determine the species

barriers in prion infections? What are the host susceptibility

factors that promote prion infection? And,

finally, what are the molecular mechanisms that will

underpin successful sensitive diagnostics137 and efficacious

therapies? The tools and experimental models

available now should make it possible to answer many

of these questions. The development of new technologies,

and the input of fresh ideas, has opened up new

perspectives on our understanding of the mechanisms

of central and peripheral prion pathogenesis, some of

which could be applicable to other neurodegenerative

diseases.

snip...end...TSS

NATURE REVIEWS | MICROBIOLOGY VOLUME 4 | OCTOBER 2006 | 775

Prion diseases of humans and farm animals:

epidemiology, genetics, and pathogenesis

Adriano Aguzzi

Institute of Neuropathology, Universita¨ tsspital Zu¨ rich, Zu¨ rich, Switzerland

Journal of Neurochemistry, 2006, 97, 1726–1739

The recent discovery of transmission of vCJD via blood in

two individuals has raised concerns that blood-borne prion

transmission, in conjunction with an unknown prevalence of

vCJD-infected carriers, may lead to secondary transmission

of host-adapted prions (Peden et al. 2004). This may result in

a prolongation of the vCJD epidemic or, in the worst-case

scenario, may render vCJD endemic and self-sustained. Here

we review how prions might act as blood-borne infectious

agents, and consider strategies to restrict secondary transmission

of prion diseases.

Diagnosis of CJD

Clinically, patients suffering from CJD typically present

with rapidly progressive cognitive decline, which may be

fulminant and progress to akinetic mutism within weeks.

Cerebellar signs are also very frequent and electroencephalographic

recordings often visualize periodic sharp wave

complexes. The definitive diagnosis of sporadic CJD,

however, must usually await the analysis of central nervous

tissue, bioptically or post mortem. ‘Probable CJD’ cases are

diagnosed mainly on the basis of clinical symptoms when no

histopathological or biochemical confirmation is available.

Such ‘probable CJD’ cases may contaminate mortality

statistics in countries that register CJD cases based on

surrogate markers, including elevation of protein 14.3.3

in the cerebrospinal fluid (Hsich et al. 1996; Zerr et al.

2000).

In the case of vCJD disease, a firm diagnosis can often be

obtained by the biopsy of tonsils, which have been shown to

harbor significant amounts of PrPSc in germinal centers (Hill

et al. 1999). Highly sensitive methods have revealed that at

least one-third of patients with sCJD have deposits of PrPSc

in skeletal muscle and/or spleen (Glatzel et al. 2003a). While

the sensitivity of 30% is insufficient for routine diagnostics,

these data open the possibility of minimally invasive

diagnostics for sCJD, perhaps in combination with more

sensitive methods in the future.

Magnetic resonance imaging has provided evidence of the

frequent presence of hyperintensity in the posterior thalamus

of vCJD patients (Zeidler et al. 2000). This ‘pulvinar sign’

was originally thought to discriminate reliably between sCJD

and vCJD, but cases of sCJD with the same type of

neuroradiological changes have been described (Haik et al.

2003; Rossetti et al. 2004).

Determination of the molecular weight and glycosylation

patterns of PrPSc upon protease digest have established

themselves as proxies for determining strains of human

prions, and for differentiating vCJD from sporadic forms of

the disease (Parchi et al. 1996; Hill et al. 1997). However,

sophisticated analyses with state-of-the art antibodies discriminating

the fragment length of protease-digested PrPSc

have suggested a much more complex reality, and are

questioning the current classification of human prion diseases

(Polymenidou et al. 2005).

snip...

Extraneural PrPSc

Refinements in the technologies for detection of PrPSc have

prompted a renaissance of studies of the distribution of the

disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral organs of

patients. These studies revealed that extraneural PrPSc is

more widespread than previously thought. Zanusso and

colleagues found that PrPSc is readily detectable in the

olfactory mucosa of sCJD victims (Zanusso et al. 2003).

Glatzel and colleagues have found that approximately onethird

of the Swiss sCJD patients display PrPSc in their

skeletal muscle and another third (partially overlapping) had

PrPSc in lymphoid organs (Glatzel et al. 2003a). Further

investigations are underway to determine whether these

findings are universally valid for CJD patients, or are a

specific characteristic of the Swiss CJD collective. If the

latter were true, one might speculate that the abnormal

peripheral pathogenesis of CJD in Swiss patients points to a

specific etiology.

The UK vCJD cases are likely to be primary transmissions

from cattle BSE. However, experimental transmission studies

show that TSE strain characteristics can change upon serial

passages after the original primary transmission (Asante

et al. 2002). Therefore, horizontal vCJD transmission

amongst humans could result in a different phenotype than

vCJD. This scenario calls for innovative studies aimed at

developing and validating classical and emerging, up-to-date

prion strain typing tools.

snip...

MVV and related small-ruminant lentiviruses are endemic

in most, if not all, European small ruminant populations

(Peterhans et al. 2004). The above data suggest that common

viral infections of small ruminants may enhance the spread of

prions. MVV is found within mammary epithelial cells and

macrophages (Carrozza et al. 2003), and has been experimentally

passed to lambs via milk (Preziuso et al. 2004).

Milk is believed to represent a major route of transmission

for the natural spread of MVV. The PrP deposits in CD68+

cells of mammary lymphoid follicles, in concert with the

copious shedding of macrophages into milk of mastitic sheep

(Fig. 2b) (Lerondelle and Ouzrout 1990; Preziuso et al.

2004), raises the question whether coexistence of prion

infection and inflammation in secretory organs may lead to

prion contamination of secretions, and may represent a

cofactor for horizontal prion spread within flocks.

As the kidney is an excretory organ, it was inevitable to

that the question whether nephritis would lead to excretion of

prions into the urine (‘prionuria’) would be raised. This was

indeed found to be the case (Seeger et al. 2005) in mice

suffering from lymphocytic nephritis (Fig. 3). Interestingly,

isolated glomerulonephritis without lymphofollicular

involvement, as in mice deficient for the milk fat globuleepidermal

growth factor-like protein 8, did not lead to

prionuria. These accrued data suggest that prion shedding by

inflamed secretory and excretory organs may represent a

relevant exogenous cofactor that modifies the spread of

prions in populations.

snip...

Concluding remarks

For the past 10 years, prions have been in the public

limelight as the causative agent of ‘mad cow disease’. This

tremendous publicity has influenced political agendas,

attracted large amounts of research funds, and motivated

many researchers to enter the prion field. In the past 2 years,

however, prions have all but disappeared from the public

perception, mainly due to a – possibly premature –

perception that BSE has been defeated. From a scientific

viewpoint, however, the prion problem is enigmatic as ever,

despite all the progress summarized in this review article.

The precise physicochemical nature of the agent is unknown,

the process of prion replication is essentially a black box, the

phenomena underlying the various strains of prions are not

understood, and the function of the normal prion protein is

utterly unclear. Although some of these questions may be

resolved in the near future, others – including the most basic

characteristics of prions – may need to await the development

of novel technologies in imaging and in structural

biology for their resolution. Exciting times lie ahead for

scientists wishing to enter the prion field!

snip...end...TSS

 2006 The Author

Journal Compilation  2006 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2006) 97, 1726–1739

=====================================================================================

MEDICAL IMPLANTS CONTAINING BOVINE MATERIAL

snip...

USA GBR

15. USA was initially assigned GBR II by the SSC in 20007. A

reassessment by EFSA in 2004 changed the level to GBR III8 (see

Annex 1). This was based upon:

(i) the extent of external challenge since 1980. The USA imported

cattle and MBM from BSE risk countries, including the UK, during

periods of time when a risk of importation of infected animals and

contaminated feed existed (see pages 2-8 of the technical annex at

Annex 1).

(ii) the stability of USA system to mitigate against the external

challenge since 1980. The USA system was considered extremely

unstable such that should BSE infectivity have entered the system

it would have recycled and amplified quickly (see pages 8-14 of the

technical annex at Annex 1).

16. In 2005, BSE was confirmed from a reanalysis of sample collected

as part of routine surveillance from a single native USA animal that

died in 20049 supporting the change in GBR level.

SEAC CONSIDERATION

Implantable medical devices containing bovine material

17. MHRA recently identified a range of implants (heart valves, heart

valve conduits, vascular grafts and pericardial patches) on the UK

market that use bovine tissue (mainly pericardium) sourced from

an open herd in the USA. The devices were certified by a Spanish

Notified Body despite objections being made about the source of

the material by the UK and other Member States. The basis for the

Spanish certification was that no alternative devices would be

available until the manufacturer found another bovine source (i.e.

from a closed herd or from a GBR I country). However, since

these implants were sourced from an open herd in a GBR III

country, MHRA took the view that the TSE-related risk had not

been minimised and the products were removed from the UK

market.

7 http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out137_en.pdf

8 http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/573_en.html

9 http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/issues/bse/epi-updates/bse_final_epidemiol...

18. The products will not be re-introduced on the UK market until

suitable alternatives are available. However, the devices can be

used in the UK on humanitarian grounds on a named patient basis

where no alternative treatment is available.

19. It is likely that in the past (prior to 1 May 2005 when the additional

certification under the terms of Directive 2003/32/EC was required)

that several thousand devices incorporating material from the

same and similar sources were implanted into patients in the UK.

snip...

Scientific report of the European Food Safety Authority on the

assessment of the Geographical BSE Risk (GBR) of the United

States of America (USA) including

• report

• technical annex

These documents can also be found at:

http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/573_en.html

snip...full text ;

http://www.seac.gov.uk/papers/91-2.pdf

Subject: FDA 50 STATE EMERGENCY BSE CONFERENCE CALL JANUARY 9, 2001

Date: Sun, 7 Jan 2001 09:45:19 -0800
Reply-To: Sustainable Agriculture Network Discussion Group
<[log in to unmask]>
Sender: Sustainable Agriculture Network Discussion Group
<[log in to unmask]>
From: Beth von Gunten <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [BSE] FDA/IMPORTANT NOTICE: 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL

IMPORTANT NOTICE: 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL - BSE

TUESDAY, JANUARY 9, 2001
1:00-2:00 PM EST CALL: 1-888-273-9887

A special "50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL" to discuss BSE (Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy) issues for Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) regulated animal feed products in the United States and
imported animal feeds. The conference call will
discuss the FDA proposed response to the current BSE issue and the
assistance needed from state feed and agriculture programs. THIS
ISSUE MAY IMPACT ALL STATES AND ALL ANIMAL FEED AND PRODUCTION
INDUSTRIES.

The 50 State call is scheduled for Tuesday, January 9, 2001 from
1:00-2:00 pm EST. Any state agency responsible for animal feed issues
wishing to participate should call 1-888-273-9887 and ask to be
connected to the "50 State BSE Call". The conference host operator
will explain how to participate, including asking questions during
the call. If possible, please coordinate within your state to utilize
only one phone line per state agency.

We request that you forward this message to your agency management
and feed coordinators or other agencies or departments who may be
responsible for any animal feed issues related to FDA regulated
products.

The agenda will be as follows:

1. Center For Veterinary Medicine (FDA) - Discussion of the problem
related to BSE events in Europe and the impact on US feed ingredients
for animals and feed operations. Discussion of the proposed
actions/inspections/compliance of licensed and unlicensed feed mills,
commercial feed manufacturers, animal feed imports, renderer's,
protein blenders, on-farm mixers, and ruminant feeders.

2. Office of Regional Operations (FDA) - Discussion of
contracting/working with states to inspect the universe of feed
mills/industry for "Animal Proteins Prohibited from Use in Animal
Feed". Discussion of working with FDA field offices.

3. Questions and answers.

Richard H. Barnes, Director
Division of Federal-State Relations (HFC-150)
5600 Fishers Lane Room 1207
Rockville, Md. 20857
ph: (301) 827-6906 FAX: (301) 443-2143
Email: [log in to unmask] http://lists.ifas.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0101&L=sanet-mg&P=13410

Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001

Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Greetings List Members, I was lucky enough to sit in on this BSE conference call today and even managed to ask a question. that is when the trouble started. I submitted a version of my notes to Sandra Blakeslee of the New York Times, whom seemed very upset, and rightly so. "They tell me it is a closed meeting and they will release whatever information they deem fit. Rather infuriating." and i would have been doing just fine, until i asked my question. i was surprised my time to ask a question so quick. (understand, these are taken from my notes for now. the spelling of names and such could be off.) [host Richard Barns] and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of CJD Watch. [TSS] yes, thank you, U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds? [no answer, you could hear in the back ground, mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question again.] [host Richard] could you repeat the question? [TSS] U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you give for serum or tissue donor herds? [not sure whom ask this] what group are you with? [TSS] CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are tracking CJD world-wide. [not sure who is speaking] could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary [TSS] you are not going to answer my question? [not sure whom speaking] NO from this point, i was still connected, got to listen and tape the whole conference. at one point someone came on, a woman, and ask again; [unknown woman] what group are you with? [TSS] CJD Watch and my Mom died from hvCJD we are trying to tract down CJD and other human TSE's world wide. i was invited to sit in on this from someone inside the USDA/APHIS and that is why i am here. do you intend on banning me from this conference now? at this point the conference was turned back up, and i got to finish listening. They never answered or even addressed my one question, or even addressed the issue. BUT, i will try and give you a run-down for now, of the conference. IF i were another Country, I would take heed to my notes, BUT PLEASE do not depend on them. ask for transcript from; RBARNS@ORA.FDA.GOV 301-827-6906 he would be glad to give you one ;-)

snip...full text ;

http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/DOCKETS/96n0417/96N-0417-EC-2.htm

http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/AC/01/slides/3681s2_09.pdf

snip....end......TSS

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Third case of vCJD reported in the United States
Editorial Team (eurosurveillance.weekly@hpa.org.uk), Eurosurveillance
editorial office

A clinical diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) was
confirmed after brain biopsy investigations in a United States (US) resident
and reported in November [1]. The patient is a young man who grew up in
Saudi Arabia and lived in the US since late 2005. Before that he visited the
US once in 1989 and several times after 2001. He has never visited any
country in Europe or received a blood transfusion nor has he undergone any
neurosurgical procedure. This vCJD case is the third in a US resident. The
previous two patients both grew up in the United Kingdom (UK), and this is
where they were believed to have been infected [2].

In Saudi Arabia, the first and only previous case of vCJD was reported in
2005. This was suspected to be related to consumption of meat contaminated
with the prion agent which causes bovine spongiform encephalitis in cattle
(BSE). The European Food Safety Authority (http://www.efsa.org) has not
published a geographical BSE risk assessment for Saudi Arabia [3] and there
have been no cases of BSE in cattle reported by Saudi Arabia to the World
Organisation for Animal Health (http://www.oie.int). Although the UK is not
the only potential beef exporter to have had a BSE epidemic, it remains
plausible, subject to Saudi Arabia's import policy, that contaminated beef
was inadvertently imported from the UK to Saudi Arabia in the period before
1996 (when the EU banned the export of UK beef and cattle).

Based on this patient's history, the occurrence of a previously reported
case of vCJD in Saudi Arabia, and the expected length of the incubation
period for food-related vCJD, the most likely source of infection is thought
to be contaminated meat products the patient consumed as a child when living
in Saudi Arabia. The patient has no known history of donating blood, and
investigations have identified no risk of onwards transmission within the
US.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was first identified in the United Kingdom
in the mid-1990s. As of November 2006, worldwide there have been 200 vCJD
cases: 164 patients in the United Kingdom, 21 in France, four in Ireland,
three in the US (including the present case), two in the Netherlands and one
each in Canada, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia and Spain [4]. All
patients, except 10 (including the present case) had lived either in the
United Kingdom (170 cases) or in France (20 cases). Evidence so far
indicates that the most probable source of infection in most cases was
consumption of meat products contaminated with the prion agent causing BSE.

References:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Confirmed Case of Variant
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) in the United States in a Patient from the
Middle East. (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/other/vCJD_112906.htm)
Belay ED, Sejvar JJ, Shieh W-J, Wiersma ST, Zou W-Q, Gambetti P, Hunter S,
Maddox RA, Crockett L, Zaki SR, Schonberger LB. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease death, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2005, 11 (9):1351-1354.
European Food Safety Authority . Geographical BSE Risk (GBR) assessments
covering 2000-2006. List of countries and their GBR level of risk as
assessed by the Scientific Steering Committee and the (EFSA). 1 August 2006.
(http://www.efsa.europa.eu/etc/medialib/efsa/science/tse_assessments/gbr_ass
essments/summary_list_countries.Par.0001.File.dat/GBR_assessments_table_Over
view_assessed_countries_2002-2006.pdf)
Variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. Current data – December 2006.
(http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/vcjdworld.htm)

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2006/061207.asp#2

>>>The patient is a young man who grew up in Saudi Arabia and lived in the
US since late 2005. Before that he visited the US once in 1989 and several
times after 2001. He has never visited any country in Europe or received a
blood transfusion nor has he undergone any neurosurgical procedure.<<<

Heaven forbid anyone suggest that this unlucky Soul was contaminated in the
USA from vCJD.
This would just be preposterous, wouldn't it $$$

i am reminded of a few things deep throat told me years ago;

============================================================

The most frightening thing I have read all day is the
report of Gambetti's finding of a new strain of
sporadic cjd in young people.........Dear God, what in
the name of all that is holy is that!!!
If the US has different strains of
scrapie.....why????than the UK...then would the same
mechanisms that make different strains of scrapie here
make different strains of BSE...if the patterns are
different in sheep and mice for scrapie.....could not
the BSE be different in the cattle, in the mink, in
the humans.......I really think the slides or tissues
and everything from these young people with the new
strain of sporadic cjd should be put up to be analyzed
by many, many experts in cjd........bse.....scrapie
Scrape the damn slide and put it into
mice.....wait.....chop up the mouse brain and and
spinal cord........put into some more mice.....dammit
amplify the thing and start the damned
research.....This is NOT rocket science...we need to
use what we know and get off our butts and move....the
whining about how long everything takes.....well it
takes a whole lot longer if you whine for a year and
then start the research!!!
Not sure where I read this but it was a recent press
release or something like that:
I thought I would fall out of my chair when I read
about how there was no worry about infectivity from a
histopath slide or tissues because they are preserved
in formic acid, or formalin or formaldehyde.....for
God's sake........ Ask any pathologist in the UK what
the brain tissues in the formalin looks like after a
year.......it is a big fat sponge...the agent
continues to eat the brain ......you can't make slides
anymore because the agent has never stopped........and
the old slides that are stained with Hemolysin and
Eosin......they get holier and holier and degenerate
and continue...what you looked at 6 months ago is not
there........Gambetti better be photographing every
damned thing he is looking at.....

Okay, you need to know. You don't need to pass it on
as nothing will come of it and there is not a damned
thing anyone can do about it. Don't even hint at it
as it will be denied and laughed at..........
USDA is gonna do as little as possible until there is
actually a human case in the USA of the
nvcjd........if you want to move this thing along and
shake the earth....then we gotta get the victims
families to make sure whoever is doing the autopsy is
credible, trustworthy, and a saint with the courage of
Joan of Arc........I am not kidding!!!!
so, unless we get a human death from EXACTLY the same
form with EXACTLY the same histopath lesions as seen
in the UK nvcjd........forget any action........it is
ALL gonna be sporadic!!!

And, if there is a case.......there is gonna be every
effort to link it to international travel,
international food, etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. They
will go so far as to find out if a sex partner had
ever traveled to the UK/europe, etc. etc. ....
It is gonna be a long, lonely, dangerous twisted
journey to the truth. They have all the cards, all
the money, and are willing to threaten and carry out
those threats....and this may be their biggest
downfall...

Thanks as always for your help.
(Recently had a very startling revelation from a rather senior person in
government here..........knocked me out of my chair........you must keep
pushing. If I was a power person....I would be demanding that there be a
least a million bovine tested as soon as possible and agressively
seeking this disease. The big players are coming out of the woodwork as
there is money to be made!!!
In short: "FIRE AT WILL"!!! for the very dumb....who's "will"! "Will
be the burden to bare if there is any coverup!"

again it was said years ago and it should
be taken seriously....BSE will NEVER be found in the
US!
As for the BSE conference call...I think you did a
great service to freedom of information and making
some people feign integrity...I find it scary to see
that most of the "experts" are employed by the federal
government or are supported on the "teat" of federal
funds. A scary picture!
I hope there is a confidential panel organized by the
new government to really investigate this thing.

You need to watch your back........but keep picking at
them.......like a buzzard to the bone...you just may
get to the truth!!! (You probably have more support than
you know. Too many people are afraid to show you or let
anyone else know. I have heard a few things myself...
you ask the questions that everyone else is too afraid to ask.)

================================================================

12/07/06

HOWEVER, if you ONLY consider an OUTSIDE source of mbm from the UK, you will
see that indeed the UK did dump a great deal of mad cow poison on the middle
east, compared to the amount they dumped on USA. comparing from my records
from the U.K., the USA imported about 44 tons of UK mbm or greaves, Canada
got 83 tons in 3 years, 1993, 1994, and 1995. compared to about 6,985 tons
exported from the UK to Saudi Arabia over a period of about 20 years, with
Saudi importing mbm from UK as late as 1995. ISRAEL ALSO IMPORTED A GREAT
DEAL OF THIS POISON, 30,006 TONS of MBM FROM UK. A great deal was also
imported to Asian Countries as well. HOWEVER, we cannot state that this is
indeed a case of vCJD exported to the USA from Saudi with certainty. now we
all know that the USDA will paint this pig with lipstick and take it to the
dance, to the prom and anywhere else they can take it, but the fact still
remains, they cannot state this with scientific proof. IF you look at the
USA and it's TSE problem, the rendering industry, and the fact that the USA
shipped the technology of continous rendering to the UK, only to start using
5 years later, then look at the 100s, if not thousands of tons of
potentially and most likely TSE tainted feed used in the USA for the last 2
decades, the likelyhood of this being a USA source of vCJD, in my opinion,
is possible as well. In 2006 alone, the amount of ruminant protein still
being fed to USA cattle is not only phenominal, but also very very
disturbing. ...TSS

----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Monday, December 04, 2006 10:55 AM
Subject: Confirmed Case of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) in the
United States in a Patient from the Middle East

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
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Confirmed Case of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) in the United
States in a Patient from the Middle East

The Virginia Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention announce the recent confirmation of a vCJD case in a U.S.
resident. This is the third vCJD case identified in a U.S. resident. This
latest U.S. case occurred in a young adult who was born and raised in Saudi
Arabia and has lived in the United States since late 2005. The patient
occasionally stayed in the United States for up to 3 months at a time since
2001 and there was a shorter visit in 1989. In late November 2006, the
Clinical Prion Research Team at the University of California San Francisco
Memory and Aging Center confirmed the vCJD clinical diagnosis by pathologic
study of adenoid and brain biopsy tissues. The two previously reported vCJD
case-patients in U.S. residents were each born and raised in the United
Kingdom (U.K.), where they were believed to have been infected by the agent
responsible for their disease. There is strong scientific evidence that the
agent causing vCJD is the same agent that causes bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease).

Variant CJD is a rare, degenerative, fatal brain disorder that emerged in
the United Kingdom in the mid-1990s. Although experience with this new
disease is limited, evidence to date indicates that there has never been a
case transmitted from person-to-person except through blood transfusion.
Instead, the disease is thought to result primarily from consumption of
cattle products contaminated with the BSE agent. Although no cases of BSE in
cattle have been reported in Saudi Arabia, potentially contaminated cattle
products from the United Kingdom may have been exported to Saudi Arabia for
many years during the large U.K. BSE outbreak.

The current case-patient has no history of receipt of blood, a past
neurosurgical procedure, or residing in or visiting countries of Europe.
Based on the patient's history, the occurrence of a previously reported
Saudi case of vCJD attributed to likely consumption of BSE-contaminated
cattle products in Saudi Arabia, and the expected greater than 7 year
incubation period for food-related vCJD, this U.S. case-patient was most
likely infected from contaminated cattle products consumed as a child when
living in Saudi Arabia (1). The current patient has no history of donating
blood and the public health investigation has identified no risk of
transmission to U.S. residents from this patient.

As of November 2006, 200 vCJD patients were reported world-wide, including
164 patients identified in the United Kingdom, 21 in France, 4 in the
Republic of Ireland, 3 in the United States (including the present
case-patient), 2 in the Netherlands and 1 each in Canada, Italy, Japan,
Portugal, Saudi Arabia and Spain. Of the 200 reported vCJD patients, all
except 10 of them (including the present case-patient) had resided either in
the United Kingdom (170 cases) for over 6 months during the 1980-1996 period
of the large UK BSE outbreak or alternatively in France (20 cases).

As reported in 2005 (1), the U.S. National Prion Disease Pathology
Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve University confirmed the
diagnosis in the one previously identified case of vCJD in a Saudi resident.
He was hospitalized in Saudi Arabia and his brain biopsy specimen was
shipped to the United States for analysis. This earlier vCJD case-patient
was believed to have contracted his fatal disease in Saudi Arabia (1).

1) Belay ED, Sejvar JJ, Shieh W-J, Wiersma ST, Zou W-Q, Gambetti P, Hunter
S, Maddox RA, Crockett L, Zaki SR, Schonberger LB. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease death, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2005, 11 (9):1351-1354.

Date: November 29, 2006
Content source: National Center for Infectious Diseases

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/other/vCJD_112906.htm

The Virginia Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention announce the recent confirmation of a case of variant
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in a Virginia resident. There is no
evidence to suggest that this case of vCJD was caused by anything the
patient was exposed to while residing in the U.S. or that this situation
represents a public health threat to any U.S. resident.

For more information on vCJD, visit CDC’s Web site at
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/other/vCJD_112906.htm.

http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/news/Alerts/vCJD.htm

TSS

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Terry S. Singeltary SR.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

Offline
Joined: 01/01/2006
Posts: 230
MAD COW DISEASE USA UPDATE DECEMBER 8, 2006

Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

2005 Annual Report

1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? What does it matter?
This project deals with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE), which are fatal degenerative diseases of the central nervous system that can affect several animal species, including humans. The causal agent is believed to be a cellular protein, the prion protein (PrP) that has assumed an unnatural form. Because the altered protein is resistant to protease degradation, it accumulates in nervous tissue and the resulting dysfunction ultimately leads to death. The specific TSEs being investigated in this project are scrapie in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk. The major concern about these diseases is that BSE has been shown to cross the species barrier to cause a unique TSE in human beings. Although it has not been demonstrated that scrapie, TME, or CWD present any risk to human health, the BSE experience has raised many questions about the potential hazard these TSEs present for transmission to other animal species, especially domesticated livestock and wildlife. The current research is focused on direct experimental challenge of the species barrier effect by animal inoculation. These results are then compared to results obtained with a variety of laboratory procedures to determine if they can be used as predictive models for future risk assessments. These studies also provide information about the clinical and pathological disease characteristics that can be expected if a TSE crosses the species barrier, thus enabling animal health specialists to recognize such situations should they occur. Additional transmission studies in the natural host will focus on determining the modes of transmission and disease development in scrapie and CWD so that appropriate intervention strategies can be devised that will control the spread of these diseases.

Because of the risk for BSE transmission to human beings, the presence of scrapie, TME, CWD, and BSE in the United States presents a potential liability to the U.S. livestock and hunting industries, because the safety of animals and animal products intended for domestic consumption and international trade may be questioned. Efforts are being made by both federal and state regulatory agencies to eradicate scrapie and CWD and to determine the prevalence of BSE. The effectiveness of these programs will depend heavily on having accurate information about the nature of these diseases, not only in the original hosts, but also in other species that may be affected.

The impact of this research project on U.S. agriculture, especially the cattle industry, is significant. The discovery of one BSE positive animal in December 2003 in Washington State resulted in significant losses to the U.S. beef industry. More than 50 countries (including major markets such as Japan and South Korea) banned import of U.S. cattle and beef products within days of the December 2003 announcement. Estimated losses arising from these bans during 2004 range from $3.2 billion to $4.7 billion. Many of these bans are still in effect in 2005 and with the discovery of a second, indigenous case of BSE in June 2005, significant losses from export bans of U.S. beef will most likely be also experienced in 2005. In addition, the regulations introduced in 2004 led to changes in the beef industry with a net economic cost of approximately $200 million in 2004.

2.List the milestones (indicators of progress) from your Project Plan.
Animal experiments: Because of the long-term nature of most TSE experiments in animals, especially those involving cross-species transmission, most of the studies outlined in this project will not be completed within 30 months. Therefore, the following time line primarily presents expectations for when experiments will be initiated.

FY 2003 Cattle inoculated with white-tailed deer CWD. Fallow and white-tailed deer inoculated with CWD. Cattle inoculated with TME. Sheep inoculated with AV136QR171 and Idaho scrapie isolates.

FY 2004 Cattle inoculated with elk CWD. Raccoons inoculated with TME, scrapie, and CWD isolates. Mice inoculated for strain typing of 10 TSE isolates. Swine inoculated with scrapie and CWD. Reindeer inoculated with CWD. White-tailed deer inoculated with scrapie.

FY 2005 Study to assess scrapie and CWD amplification in market age swine completed. Mice inoculated for strain typing of 15 TSE isolates.

Laboratory studies:

FY 2003 Validation of method for genotyping from paraffin sections. Methods developed for biochemical strain typing studies.

FY 2004 Genotyping of archived scrapie tissues from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL)/APHIS/VS/USDA. Evaluation of biochemical methods for strain typing of scrapie isolates. Development of mass spectrometry methods for characterization of protein expression in normal sheep brain.

FY 2005 Evaluation of biochemical methods for differentiation of TSE agents after cross-species transmission. Comparison of protein expression (mass spectrometry) in scrapie brain to that in normal sheep brain.

3a.List the milestones that were scheduled to be addressed in FY 2005. For each milestone, indicate the status: fully met, substantially met, or not met. If not met, why.

Study to assess scrapie and CWD amplification in market age swine completed.
Milestone Fully Met Milestone Substantially Met

Mice inoculated for strain typing of 15 TSE isolates.
Milestone Not Met

Evaluation of biochemical methods for differentiation of TSE agents after cross-species transmission.
Milestone Substantially Met

Comparison of protein expression (mass spectrometry) in scrapie brain to that in normal sheep brain.
Milestone Not Met

3b.List the milestones that you expect to address over the next 3 years (FY 2006, 2007, and 2008). What do you expect to accomplish, year by year, over the next 3 years under each milestone?
FY 2006 Mouse bioassay with various TSE isolates to determine if this strain typing procedure is useful for identification of unique TSE strains in the U.S.

Cattle inoculation with both U.S. BSE isolates in order to amplify BSE material for subsequent pathogenesis studies.

Inoculation of reindeer with CWD agent.

FY 2007 and FY 2008 Because the incubation period for TSE transmission is typically 2 years or longer, it is anticipated that the major activity during these years will involve termination of many animal inoculation experiments that began in FY03. The work will include necropsies and tissue analysis to confirm TSE transmissions, followed by laboratory analysis using strain characterization methods developed and evaluated in FY 04 and FY05.

4a.What was the single most significant accomplishment this past year?
Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) transmission to cattle: Intracerebral inoculation of cattle with brain material from mink with TME and TME from cattle (i.e. from 1st cattle passage) resulted in lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and distribution of the abnormal form of the prion protein, PrPres (as determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot) in the central nervous system (CNS) which resembles those found in cattle infected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). This indicates that TME is able to induce a neurological disease and pathological lesions in cattle which are similar to BSE. Comparison of cattle- passaged TME with both U.S. BSE cases by Western Blot analysis revealed differences in molecular weight. This would allow us to differentiate between cattle infected with BSE and TME. This is a significant finding that might enable us to distinguish BSE in cattle from the other animal TSEs should they ever appear in cattle.

4b.List other significant accomplishments, if any.
Intracerebral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) to white-tailed deer: Under free-ranging conditions, CWD has been observed in elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Since there is no information to indicate that CWD from these 3 cervid species is the same (or if these are 3 different strains of cervid CWDs), we inoculated CWD from these 3 sources to 3 groups of white-tailed deer fawns. White-tailed deer were susceptible to all three sources of CWD with similar incubation times. This finding is important in that it indicates that there are no differences in clinical susceptibility of white-tailed deer to CWD from different cervid sources.

Oral transmission of CWD to elk: To compare genetic susceptibility of elk to CWD, eight 8-month-old elk calves of 3 different genotypes (MM, LM and LL) for the prion protein were orally dosed with CWD infected brain material from elk. Elk with the MM and LM genotype developed CWD within 23 and 40 months, respectively, whereas LL elk are still alive and clinically normal at 4 years post inoculation. The finding that elk with the LL genotype have a reduced susceptibility to oral infection with the chronic wasting disease agent is important to elk farmers. This study will continue for additional 2 years.

Scrapie transmission to swine: Swine were inoculated with scrapie-affected sheep brain homogenate via the oral and intracerebral route and necropsied at 6 months post inoculation. No evidence of prion disease was found in these market aged swine. Monitoring of scrapie-inoculated littermates will continue until the termination of the study in approximately 5 years. This work is important for pork producers.

Retinal pathology in sheep with scrapie: A study of retinal pathology in scrapie-affected sheep has been completed. It was demonstrated that cells of the retina in scrapie-affected sheep with prion accumulation in the retina express proteins that indicate retinal degeneration, whereas cells of the normal sheep retina do not express these proteins. The implication of this report is that scrapie-affected sheep may have deficits of the visual system which are detectable by various methods. Laboratory verification of second U.S. BSE case: Studies were conducted which confirmed the BSE diagnosis of an inconclusive bovine brain sample. The PrPres profile from the second BSE case diagnosed in the United States showed different molecular properties when compared to the PrPres pattern described for the 2003 U.S. isolate. A germline mutation in the bovine PrP gene was not evident. This work benefited the APHIS-National Veterinary Services Laboratories.

B cells in sheep scrapie: In scrapie-infected sheep, an over-representation of the B-1 subset of B cells was detected in the peripheral blood. In addition, a significant reduction in the expression of the normal prion protein, PrPc, on B cells, was found. This correlated with the progression of scrapie in these animals. The implication of these findings is that scrapie-affected sheep may have detectable changes in the peripheral blood that may lead to a live animal test.

4c.List any significant activities that support special target populations.
None.

5.Describe the major accomplishments over the life of the project, including their predicted or actual impact.
This project was initiated January 28, 2002, as a result of the FY 2002 Appropriations Bill passed by Congress and signed by the President for research on Emerging & Exotic Diseases of Pests. The major objectives are to assess transmissibility of the TSEs that affect livestock and wildlife species, to develop methods for differentiation of TSE strains, and to determine the pathobiology of these diseases in the natural host and after cross-species transmission. Experiments are in progress to determine the transmissibility of different CWDs into cattle, sheep and swine. Based on results of our studies, it may be concluded that under natural conditions cattle exposed to mule deer CWD would require a rather large dose of inoculum, and an extremely long incubation time to develop a TSE-associated disease. In contrast, intracerebral inoculation of cattle with brain material from mink with TME or cattle-passaged TME resulted in incubation times, lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and PrP**res distribution which resemble those found in cattle infected with BSE. We were able to compare the first U.S. BSE isolate (2003) with other typical BSE isolates (Canadian, European) and found them to be indistinguishable. In contrast, the molecular phenotype of the second U.S. BSE isolate (2004) was different from the 2003 U.S. BSE isolate as determined by Western blot analysis. Completed work has determined that sheep scrapie can be transmitted to elk and that the resulting disease is indistinguishable from CWD in that species. When elk CWD was transmitted orally to elk of different genotypes, one genotype (LL) seems to be less susceptible to CWD. White-tailed deer have been inoculated with CWD from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer in order to determine if strain differences in the CWD agent exist that depend on the host of origin. The cross-species transmission experiments will provide information and tissues that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of current diagnostic protocols for the TSEs. An important contribution of this project has been the demonstration of the utility of raccoons as an animal model to distinguish scrapie, CWD and TME based on attack rate and time to clinical disease. Raccoons inoculated with TME develop disease within 6 months time and as such represent one of the fastest available, non-transgenic models of TSE disease. We developed a method to extract DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem tissue to determine prion gene polymorphisms in scrapie-infected sheep. This method has been successfully transferred to APHIS and might have important implications for future scrapie surveillance efforts.

6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Preliminary inactivation studies with prions in different materials were initiated with 2 independent companies with interest in commercial feed manufacturing. Discussions in establishing CRADAs are underway.

7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
ARS Agricultural Research Magazine: Article on research activities in December 2004 edition (Title: TSEs Touch Off ARS Research). Invited lecture presented at USAHA meeting on "Characterization of the recent U.S. BSE case and methods for surveillance." Invited lecture presented at AAVLD meeting on "Molecular characterization of prion isolates from livestock and cervids."” Invited lecture presented at the USDA's Agricultural Outlook Forum on the "BSE and strategies for testing." Invited lecture presented at APHIS-ARS Annual Conference on "Review of key accomplishments in TSE Research." Invited lecture presented at the ARS BSE Industry Consultation Meeting on "Critical gaps in our knowledge of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy." Invited lecture presentated at the AOAC International Midwest Section Annual Meeting on "Biochemistry of Prion Diseases." Invited lecture presented at the 39th US-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources on "TSE inactivation in feed production."

Review Publications
Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Kunkle, R.A., Noyes, G., Hotzapple, M.T., Kehrli Jr., M.E. 2005. Loss of prion protein immunoreactivity after boiling in saturated calcium hydroxide solution [abstract]. Keystone Symposia: Molecular Mechanisms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Poster No. 125.

Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J., Holtzapple, M., Noyes, G., Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2004. TSE inactivation in feed production [abstract]. 39th United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources. USDA:APHIS:NVSL, Session 4, Abstract no. 6.

Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Orourke, K.I., Williams, E.S., Miller, M.W., Stack, M.J., Chaplin, M.J., Richt, J. 2005. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent to cattle by intracerebral route. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 17:276-281.

Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Miller, J.M., Cutlip, R.C., Jenny, A.L. 2005. Experimental transmission of sheep scrapie by intracerebral and oral routes to genetically susceptible Suffolk sheep in the United States. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 17(1):3-9.

Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Orourke, K.I., Williams, E.S., Miller, M.W., Stack, M.J., Chaplin, M.J. 2004. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent to cattle by intracerebral route: final outcome of the study [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 78.

Hamir, A., Miller, J., Cutlip, R., Stack, M., Chaplin, M., Bartz, J., Jenny, A., Williams, E. 2004. Experimental inoculation of TME, scrapie, and CWD to raccoons: an update [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 79.

Hamir, A.N. 2004. Experimental cross-species transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) at the National Animal Disease Center (NADC), Ames, Iowa: an update [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 42.

Nicholson, E.M., Young, A.J., Richt, J. 2004. Establishment of a real time-PCR based assay for the determination of ovine PrP mRNA [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 90.

Richt, J.A., Kluge, J.P., Alt, D.P., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N., Czub, S., Davis, A.J., Hall, S.M. 2004. Identification and characterization of the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy case [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 38.

Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J., Richt, J., Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2005. Biochemistry of prion diseases. Association of Analytical Communities International, Midwest Section [abstract]. Abstract No. 601. p. 38.

Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., O'Rourke, K.I., Williams, E.S., Miller, M.W., Stack, M.J., Chaplin, M.J. 2004. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent to cattle by intracerebral route: final outcome of the study [abstract]. Annual Conference of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists. 41:588.

Bessen, R.A., Dejoia, C., Dlakic, W., Sorg, R., O'Connell, K., Tucker, T., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Rocke, T. 2005. Prion infection of mucosal tissue [abstract]. 2nd International Chronic Wasting Disease Symposium. p. 38.

Hamir, A.N., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Kunkle, R.A., Greenlee, J.J., Richt, J.A., Bartz, J. 2005. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) at the National Animal Disease Center (NADC), Ames, Iowa, USA: An update [abstract]. Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. p. 263.

Richt, J.A., Kluge, J.P., Alt, D.P., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N., Czub, S., Davis, A.J., Hall, S.M. 2004. Characterization of the recent U.S. BSE case and methods for surveillance. In: Proceedings of the 108th Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, October 22-27, 2004, Greensboro, North Carolina. p. 91-92.

Young, A.J., Elmubark, G., Nthale, J., Hamir, A., Richt, J. 2004. Scrapie-associated alterations in the composition and prion protein expression of the peripheral blood B cell pool [abstract]. Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. p. 130.

Young, A.J., Elmubark, G., Nthale, J., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J. 2005. Genetic and scrapie-associated differences in PrPc expression of peripheral blood B cell subsets [abstract]. Molecular Mechanisms of TSEs (Prion Diseases), Keystone Symposia. p. 61.

Anantharam, V., Vorberg, I., Choi, C., Kanthasamy, A., Richt, J., Priola, S.A., Kanthasamy, A.G. 2005. Differential role of prion protein in oxidative stress- and ER stress-induced apoptotic signaling in neural cells [abstract]. Molecular Mechanisms of TSEs (Prion Diseases), Keystone Symposia. p. 39.

Anantharam, V., Vorberg, I., Choi, C., Kanthasamy, A., Richt, J.A., Priola, S.A., Kanthasamy, A.G. 2004. Proteolytic activation of PKC-delta contributes to oxidative- and ER-stress induced apoptotic cell death in PrP*sen-overexpressing mouse neuronal cells [abstract]. Animal Prion Diseases and the Americas. p. 48.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408808&sh...

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Subject: SCRAPIE USA REPORT UPDATE AS AT NOVEMBER 30, 2005
Date: January 12, 2006 at 11:29 am PST
SCRAPIE USA REPORT UPDATE AS AT NOVEMBER 30, 2005

Infected and Source Flocks

As of November 30, 2005 there were 95 scrapie infected and source flocks (Figure 3). There were 2 new infected and source flocks reported in November (Figure 4) with a total of 12 flocks reported for FY 2006 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2006 are 16 (Figure 6), with 9 flocks released in November. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2006 = 1.33 : 1. In addition, as of November 30, 2005, 67 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 7 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in November 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released for FY 2006 are depicted in Figure 10. New infected and source statuses from 1997 to 2006 are depicted in Chart 3.

Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS) +

RSSS started April 1, 2003. It is targeted slaughter surveillance program which is designed to identify infected flocks for clean-up. Samples have been collected from 67,840 sheep since April 1, 2003, of which results have been reported for 64,034. Samples have been submitted from 81 plants. There have been 215 NVSL confirmed positive sheep since the beginning of RSSS. In FY 2006 samples have been collected from 5,339 sheep and there have been 7 NVSL confirmed positive cases through November 2005. Face colors of FY 2006 confirmed positives are 6 black and 1 mottled. During November 2005, 2,429* animals were sampled and test results were reported on 3088 samples. Five confirmed positives were reported by NVSL in November 2005. Cumulative regional sample collection numbers are shown in Figure 11 and are based upon the State in which the animal was tagged. The number of RSSS animals collected with traceable identification for FY 2005 by month, by region where collected is shown in Figure 12. A retrospective 6 month rolling average of the % positive tested black-faced sheep sampled at slaughter is shown in Figure 13.

...snip

full text;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report...

TSS

============================
PREVIOUS MONTHS REPORTS
============================

Infected and Source Flocks

As of August 31, 2005, there were 115 scrapie infected and source flocks (figure 3). There were 3 new infected and source flocks reported in August (Figure 4) with a total of 148 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 102 (Figure 6), with 5 flocks released in August. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.69 :
1. In addition, as of August 31, 2005, 574 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 122 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 55 newly confirmed cases in August 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005.

snip...

full text ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report...

SCRAPIE USA JULY 2005 UPDATE

AS of July 31, 2005, there were 120 scrapie infected soure flocks (figure 3). There were 16 new infected and source flocks reorted in July (Figure 4) with a total of 143 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 89 (Figure 6), with 8 flocks released in July. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY = 0.62 : 1. IN addition, as of July 31, 2005, 524 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 116 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 76 newly confirmed cases in July 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005. ...........

snip...

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report...

SCRAPIE USA JUNE 2005 UPDATE

AS of June 30, 2005, there were 114 scrapie infected and source flocks
(Figure 3). There were 14 new infected and source flocks reported in June
(Figure 4) with a total of 123 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5).

snip...

In addition, as of June 30, 2005, 448 scrapie cases have been confirmed and
reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which
106 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 81 newly confirmed cases in
June 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported
since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005.

snip...end

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report...

From: TSS ()
Subject: SCRAPIE USA UPDATE MARCH - JUNE 2005
Date: August 24, 2005 at 7:03 pm PST

SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure
3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure
4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total
infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure
6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks
released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN
addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and
reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which
53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in
March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported
since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New
infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans
for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report...

Published online before print October 20, 2005

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0502296102
Medical Sciences

A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

( sheep prion | transgenic mice )

Annick Le Dur *, Vincent Béringue *, Olivier Andréoletti , Fabienne Reine *, Thanh Lan Laï *, Thierry Baron , Bjørn Bratberg ¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte ||, Pierre Sarradin **, Sylvie L. Benestad ¶, and Hubert Laude *
*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ||Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved September 12, 2005 (received for review March 21, 2005)

Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author contributions: H.L. designed research; A.L.D., V.B., O.A., F.R., T.L.L., J.-L.V., and H.L. performed research; T.B., B.B., P.S., and S.L.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; V.B., O.A., and H.L. analyzed data; and H.L. wrote the paper.

A.L.D. and V.B. contributed equally to this work.

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Hubert Laude, E-mail: laude@jouy.inra.fr

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0502296102

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0502296102v1

12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

Like lambs to the slaughter
31 March 2001
Debora MacKenzie
Magazine issue 2284
What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by eating meat from a sheep infected
with scrapie?
FOUR years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his mother die horribly from a
degenerative brain disease. Doctors told him it was Alzheimer's, but
Singeltary was suspicious. The diagnosis didn't fit her violent symptoms,
and he demanded an autopsy. It showed she had died of sporadic
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Most doctors believe that sCJD is caused by a prion protein deforming by
chance into a killer. But Singeltary thinks otherwise. He is one of a number
of campaigners who say that some sCJD, like the variant CJD related to BSE,
is caused by eating meat from infected animals. Their suspicions have
focused on sheep carrying scrapie, a BSE-like disease that is widespread in
flocks across Europe and North America.

Now scientists in France have stumbled across new evidence that adds weight
to the campaigners' fears. To their complete surprise, the researchers found
that one strain of scrapie causes the same brain damage in ...

The complete article is 889 words long.

full text;

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg16922840.300

Neurobiology
Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and
comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health
Corinne Ida Lasmézas*,, Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*, Hermann Boe*,
Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp, Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James
Ironside¶, Moira Bruce, Dominique Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys*
* Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Service de Neurovirologie, Direction
des Sciences du Vivant/Département de Recherche Medicale, Centre de
Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées 60-68, Avenue du Général Leclerc,
BP 6, 92 265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France; Hôpital Neurologique Pierre
Wertheimer, 59, Boulevard Pinel, 69003 Lyon, France; § Laboratoire de
Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 83, Boulevard de l'Hôpital,
75013 Paris, France; ¶ Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Western
General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; and
Institute for Animal Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, West Mains Road,
Edinburgh EH9 3JF, United Kingdom

Edited by D. Carleton Gajdusek, Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and approved December 7, 2000
(received for review October 16, 2000)

Abstract

There is substantial scientific evidence to support the notion that bovine
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has contaminated human beings, causing
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease has raised concerns
about the possibility of an iatrogenic secondary transmission to humans,
because the biological properties of the primate-adapted BSE agent are
unknown. We show that (i) BSE can be transmitted from primate to primate by
intravenous route in 25 months, and (ii) an iatrogenic transmission of vCJD
to humans could be readily recognized pathologically, whether it occurs by
the central or peripheral route. Strain typing in mice demonstrates that the
BSE agent adapts to macaques in the same way as it does to humans and
confirms that the BSE agent is responsible for vCJD not only in the United
Kingdom but also in France. The agent responsible for French iatrogenic
growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but
is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie
isolate. These data will be key in identifying the origin of human cases of
prion disease, including accidental vCJD transmission, and could provide
bases for vCJD risk assessment.

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1

The EMBO Journal, Vol. 19, No. 17 pp. 4425-4430, 2000
© European Molecular Biology Organization

Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting
susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to
chronic wasting disease

G.J. Raymond1, A. Bossers2, L.D. Raymond1, K.I. O?Rourke3,
L.E. McHolland4, P.K. Bryant III4, M.W. Miller5, E.S. Williams6, M.
Smits2
and B. Caughey1,7

1NIAID/NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT 59840,
3USDA/ARS/ADRU, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, 4USDA/ARS/ABADRL,
Laramie, WY 82071, 5Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research
Center, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, 6Department of Veterinary Sciences,
University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA and 2ID-Lelystad,
Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, The Netherlands
7Corresponding author e-mail: bcaughey@nih.gov Received June 7, 2000;
revised July 3, 2000; accepted July 5, 2000.

Abstract

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible
spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk,
and little is known about its transmissibility to other
species. An important factor controlling
interspecies TSE susceptibility is prion protein (PrP)
homology between the source and recipient
species/genotypes. Furthermore, the efficiency with which
the protease-resistant PrP (PrP-res) of one
species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal PrP
(PrP-sen) of another species to the
protease-resistant state correlates with the cross-species
transmissibility of TSE agents. Here we
show that the CWD-associated PrP-res (PrPCWD) of cervids
readily induces the conversion of recombinant cervid PrP-sen
molecules to the protease-resistant state in accordance
with the known transmissibility of CWD between cervids. In contrast,
PrPCWD-induced conversions of human and bovine PrP-sen were
much less efficient, and conversion of ovine PrP-sen was
intermediate. These results demonstrate a barrier at the
molecular level that should limit the susceptibility of these non-cervid
species to CWD.

snip...

Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD
passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present
results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as
limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep
scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep
scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant
CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to
date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the
presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity,
the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with
cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient
conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since
humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent
to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans
(as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been
recommended for other animal TSEs.

snip...

http://www.emboj.org/current.shtml

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to
nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of
sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that
were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of
known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one
monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys
exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months,
respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie
was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the
buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral
lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained
asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgicmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list...

TSS