Thank you for your answers !
In France it is very expansive to hunt in public land. I hunt in private land, it's my second year of hunting but the first year I have hunted only one day (I have had my hunting permit in december 2004, but with the time which was needed for papers to obtain the permit, the validation of the permit, the purchase of the rifle (Zastava 7x64), I have hunted the last day of the hunting season !). This year I have taken an action of hunting where there are wild boar (there are also roe-deer but the hunt of roe-deer is very limited (I believe we can hunting 4 roe-deer for the unit of the hunters, whereas the hunt of wild board is unlimited)). It's also possible to hunt small game.
I don't fish, but I think that your system to hunt in public land is like the system to fish in France : to fish we need purchase a permit that is valid for all a department, and it's not expansive (approximately 50 euros) whereas to hunt in public land i believe it's 6500 euros (and not for all a department, only a limited land) !