In my opinion there is not a lot of difference between the 2 calibers. Its like comparing the 280 rem to the 30-06 spr. One is designed for a 140 grain bullet, and the other for a 150 grain bullet. Basically you are going to get very similar ballistics from both calibers. 7mm-08 equels 7.2 mm diameter bullets, whereas the 308 win equels 7.8 mm diameter bullets. The 7mm-08 has almost the same velocity with a 140 gr bullet as the 308 has with a 150 gr bullet. 2860 vs 2820 f/s. Recoil 7mm-08 12.6/energy, 10.1/velocity. 308 15.8/energy, 11.7/velocity. (8 pound rifle) Here is te effective distance; 7mm-08- 285 yrds, 308- 275 yrds. (this is when the bullet drops more than 3 inches from the muzzle) Hope this helps!
I think they are both excellent rounds.
When I was doing the figure on the 7-08. I can to a semi conclusion that the .284 (7-08) may just be the ideal diameter for that case.
If I was going to use a 7-08. My first bullet choice would be Speers 145gr Hot Cor or their Grand Slam and use it for all of my hunting in the lower 48.
My situation is I have a preference to the 30 calibers.
The 308 in my opinion has a couple advantages over the 7-08. First is the ability to shoot a heavier bullet, up to 180 grain factory loaded. Second is the price and availability of ammo. Accuracy is negligible when comparing the two. Recoil is less of course with the lighter bullet 140 grain with the 7 but is not noticeable when firing at game. Damage depends on what bullet you use and where is strikes on the animal. You will have more damage if you punch a bullet through both front shoulders than if you shoot just behind the shoulder. Flatness is really an objective term and is thrown about alot when talking about centerfire rifles. The difference between the two calibers is minimal at best. In my best judgement the 308 holds a superior edge to the 7mm-08 based on above mentioned criteria as well as the 308 is the parent cartridge of many calibers and its accuracy has been proven globally by some of the best long range shooters not too mention snipers for the military and swat. Good luck.
What does "gauge" mean anyway? As used here gauge means the number of round lead balls the same diameter as the inside of the barrel (aka the bore) that it would take to weigh one pound. It takes 12 lead balls the same diameter as a 12 gauge barrel to weigh a pound. The smaller 20 gauge would require 20 balls of that barrel diameter. The larger bore 12 gauge would require 12 lead balls of the bore diameter to weigh one pound.
In general the number of pellets in a shotgun shell...