First off, you don't really need a premium bullet for deer. Most premium bullets are what is called "bonded" and that type generally don't expand quickly enough to do a lot of damage to the vitals on a deer because they are designed to go deeper on elk or moose. Anyway, go up about 1/3 to 1/2 way on the body just behind the front leg and that will take out the lungs and result in a quick, humane kill. A more forward shoulder shot will also do the same thing and generally knock a deer right off it's feet, but the result can be a mess when you hit that shoulder bone. A shot through the lungs doesn't ruin more than a couple pounds of meat and you don't have bone fragments to deal with when the animal is processed for consumption.
This is a link to an article on the DOW website under Elk Hunting University addressing shot placement for elk with a rifle. I know you were asking about deer, but I feel this article addresses it fairly well.
A 150 gr. bullet will do the trick. The first deer I got was with a 115 gr. bullet out of the .257 Roberts.
We all spend our time at the range, making sure our rifle is shooting just right. We get it dialed in, and then we head to the woods, ready to shoot our animal. Well, what happens if the animal comes out where you do not expect it? Will you be able to make the shot?
This scenario has happened to me. My first deer I ever shot, I had to shoot left handed. I had never practiced that way, and paid for it by having my nose broken with the scope. If I had just...