Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock
Title: Experimental Second Passage of Chronic Wasting Disease (Cwd-Mule Deer) Agent to Cattle
Kunkle, Robert - bob
Miller, Janice - ARS RETIRED
Submitted to: Journal Of Comparative Pathology
Publication Acceptance Date: July 25, 2005
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: To compare the findings of experimental first and second passage of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattle, 6 calves were inoculated into the brain with CWD-mule deer agent previously (first) passaged in cattle. Two other uninoculated calves served as controls. Beginning 10-12 months post inoculation (PI), all inoculates lost appetite and weight. Five animals subsequently developed clinical signs of central nervous system (CNS) abnormality. By 16.5 months PI, all cattle had been euthanized because of poor prognosis. None of the animals showed microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) but the CWD agent was detected in their CNS tissues by 2 laboratory techniques (IHC and WB). These findings demonstrate that inoculated cattle amplify CWD agent but also develop clinical CNS signs without manifestation of microscopic lesions of SE. This situation has also been shown to occur following inoculation of cattle with another TSE agent, namely, sheep scrapie. The current study confirms previous work that indicates that the diagnostic tests currently used for confirmation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.S. would detect CWD in cattle, should it occur naturally. Furthermore, it raises the possibility of distinguishing CWD from BSE in cattle due to the absence of microscopic lesions and a unique multifocal distribution of PrPres, as demonstrated by IHC, which in this study, appears to be more sensitive than the WB.
Technical Abstract: To compare clinicopathological findings of first and second passage of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattle, a group of calves (n=6) were intracerebrally inoculated with CWD-mule deer agent previously (first) passaged in cattle. Two other uninoculated calves served as controls. Beginning 10-12 months post inoculation (PI), all inoculates lost appetite and lost weight. Five animals subsequently developed clinical signs of central nervous system (CNS) abnormality. By 16.5 months PI, all cattle had been euthanized because of poor prognosis. None of the animals showed microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (SE) but PrPres was detected in their CNS tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques. These findings demonstrate that intracerebrally inoculated cattle not only amplify CWD PrPres but also develop clinical CNS signs without manifestation of morphologic lesions of SE. This situation has also been shown to occur following inoculation of cattle with another TSE agent, scrapie. The current study confirms previous work that indicates the diagnostic techniques currently used for confirmation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the U.S. would detect CWD in cattle, should it occur naturally. Furthermore, it raises the possibility of distinguishing CWD from BSE in cattle due to the absence of neuropathologic lesions and a unique multifocal distribution of PrPres, as demonstrated by IHC, which in this study, appears to be more sensitive than the WB.
Last Modified: 12/30/2005
Title: Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Agent to Cattle by Intracerebral Route
Kunkle, Robert - bob
Cutlip, Randall - ARS RETIRED
Miller, Janice - ARS RETIRED
Williams, Elizabeth - UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING
Miller, Michael - COLORADO DIV WILDLIFE
Stack, Mick - VET SERVICES AGENCY, UK
Chaplin, Melanie - VET SERVICES AGENCY, UK
Submitted to: Journal Of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Publication Acceptance Date: January 3, 2005
Publication Date: May 1, 2005
Citation: Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Orourke, K.I., Williams, E.S., Miller, M.W., Stack, M.J., Chaplin, M.J., Richt, J. 2005. Experimental Transmission Of Chronic Wasting Disease Agent To Cattle By Intracerebral Route. Journal Of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 17:276-281.
Interpretive Summary: This communication reports final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mule deer to cattle. Thirteen calves were inoculated into the brain with brain suspension from mule deer naturally affected with CWD. Three other calves were kept as uninoculated controls. The experiment was terminated 6 years post inoculation (PI). During that time, abnormal prion protein was demonstrated in the brain and spinal cord of 5 cattle by laboratory tests. However, consistent clinical signs and microscopic changes were not seen in any of these cattle. Age related changes were seen in both inoculated and control cattle. Findings of this study show that only 38% of the inoculated cattle were positive for CWD agent. Although inoculation directly into the brain is an unnatural route of exposure, and is the most severe challenge possible, this experiment shows that CWD transmission in cattle could have long incubation periods (up to 5 years). This finding suggests that oral exposure of cattle to CWD agent, a more natural potential route of exposure, would require not only a much larger dose of inoculum, but also, may not result in amplification of CWD agent within brain and spinal cord tissues during the normal lifespan of cattle. It is possible that a second bovine passage of material (cattle brain infected with CWD) from this study may result in a larger incidence of affected cattle with a shortened incubation time, and may produce different clinical and pathological findings. Such a study is now in progress. Also, experimental inoculations of cattle with CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and elk are needed to compare findings with the present study and these studies will be initiated in the near future. Impact: Results of this study show that although cattle inoculated directly into the brain with CWD succumb to the disease, the attack rate was rather small (38%) with this unnatural route of transmission. It is speculated that the oral route of infection may not result in replication of the agent during normal lifespan of cattle.
Technical Abstract: This communication reports final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from mule deer to cattle by the intracerebral route. Thirteen calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer naturally affected with CWD. Three other calves were kept as uninoculated controls. The experiment was terminated 6 years post inoculation (PI). During that time, abnormal prion protein (PrPres) was demonstrated in the central nervous system (CNS) of 5 cattle by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). However, microscopic lesions suggestive of spongiform encephalopathy in the brains of these PrPres positive animals were subtle in 3 cases and absent in 2 cases. The 3 uninoculated control cattle and 8 other inoculated animals euthanized during this time did not have PrPres in their CNS. Degenerative changes indicative of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) were seen in dorsal medulla oblongata and appeared to be related to advancing age in both inoculated and control cattle. Analysis of the gene encoding bovine PRNP revealed homozygosity for alleles encoding 6 octapeptide repeats, serine (S) at codon 46 and S at codon 146 in all samples. Findings of this study show that although PrPres amplification occurred following direct inoculation into the brain, none of the affected animals had classic histopathologic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy. Furthermore, only 38% of the inoculated cattle demonstrated amplification of PrPres. Although intracerebral inoculation is an unnatural route of exposure, and is the most severe challenge possible, this experiment shows that CWD transmission in cattle could have long incubation periods (up to 5 years). This finding suggests that oral exposure of cattle to CWD agent, a more natural potential route of exposure, would require not only a much larger dose of inoculum, but also, may not result in amplification of PrPres within CNS tissues during the normal lifespan of cattle.
Last Modified: 12/30/2005
Research Project: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Arboviruses
Location: Laramie, Wyoming
Title: Inhibition of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein Formation in a Transformed Deer Cell Line Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease
Raymond, Gregory - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Olsen, Emily - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Lee, Kil Sun - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Raymond, Lynne - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Bryant, P. Kruger - kruger
Baron, Gerald - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Caughey, Winslow - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Kocisko, David - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Favara, Cynthia - NIAID, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Langeveld, Jan P.M. - LELYSTAD, THE NETHERLANDS
Van Zijderveld, Fred - LELYSTAD, THE NETHERLANDS
Mayer, Richard - dick
Miller, Michael - COLO DIVISION OF WILDLIFE
Williams, Elizabeth - UW DEPT OF VET SCI
Caughey, Byron - NIAIN, NIH, HAMILTON, MT
Submitted to: Journal Of Virology
Publication Acceptance Date: October 17, 2005
Publication Date: January 1, 2006
Citation: Raymond, G.J., Olsen, E.A., Lee, K., Raymond, L.D., Bryant, P.K., Baron, G.S., Caughey, W.S., Kocisko, D.A., Mcholland, L.E., Favara, C., Langeveld, J., Van Zijderveld, F.G., Mayer, R.T., Miller, M.W., Williams, E.S., Caughey, B. 2006. Inhibition Of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein Formation In A Transformed Deer Cell Line Infected With Chronic Wasting Disease. Journal Of Virology. 80(2):1-9.
Interpretive Summary: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with CWD. Primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 genome. A transformed cell line (MDB) was exposed to microsomes prepared from the brainstem of a CWD-affected mule deer. CWD-associated, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPCWD) was used as an indicator of CWD infection. Although no PrPCWD was detected in any of these cultures after two passes, dilution cloning of cells yielded one PrPCWD-positive clone out of 51. This clone, designated MDBCWD, has maintained stable PrPCWD production through 32 serial passes thus far. A second round of dilution cloning yielded 20 PrPCWD-positive subclones out of 30, one of which was designated MDBCWD2. The MDBCWD2 cell line was positive for fibronectin and negative for microtubule-associated protein 2 (a neuronal marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (an activated astrocyte marker), consistent with derivation from brain fibroblasts (e.g., meningeal fibroblasts). Two inhibitors of rodent scrapie protease-resistant PrP accumulation, pentosan polysulfate and a porphyrin compound, indium (III) meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine chloride, potently blocked PrPCWD accumulation in MDBCWD cells. This demonstrates the utility of these cells in a rapid in vitro screening assay for PrPCWD inhibitors and suggests that these compounds have potential to be active against CWD in vivo.
Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with CWD. Primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 genome. A transformed cell line (MDB) was exposed to microsomes prepared from the brainstem of a CWD-affected mule deer. CWD-associated, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPCWD) was used as an indicator of CWD infection. Although no PrPCWD was detected in any of these cultures after two passes, dilution cloning of cells yielded one PrPCWD-positive clone out of 51. This clone, designated MDBCWD, has maintained stable PrPCWD production through 32 serial passes thus far. A second round of dilution cloning yielded 20 PrPCWD-positive subclones out of 30, one of which was designated MDBCWD2. The MDBCWD2 cell line was positive for fibronectin and negative for microtubule-associated protein 2 (a neuronal marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (an activated astrocyte marker), consistent with derivation from brain fibroblasts (e.g., meningeal fibroblasts). Two inhibitors of rodent scrapie protease-resistant PrP accumulation, pentosan polysulfate and a porphyrin compound, indium (III) meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine chloride, potently blocked PrPCWD accumulation in MDBCWD cells. This demonstrates the utility of these cells in a rapid in vitro screening assay for PrPCWD inhibitors and suggests that these compounds have potential to be active against CWD in vivo.
Mecham, James - Jim
Mayer, Richard - Dick
Related National Programs
Animal Health (103)
Veterinary, Medical and Urban Entomology (104)
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Persistence in Convalescent Animals
Research on Arthropod-Borne Diseases of Livestock and Wildlife
Development of Sers Assays for West Nile Virus
Last Modified: 12/30/2005
Colorado Division of Wildlife (DOW) has detected CWD in deer in two new game management units (GMU’s)
Division of Wildlife
CWD detected in Units 109 and 84
~ Late Season Hunters Encouraged to Submit Heads for Testing ~
The Colorado Division of Wildlife (DOW) has detected chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer in two new game management units (GMU’s) where it was not previously detected in eastern Colorado. The new units are GMU 109 north of Burlington and GMU 84 west of Pueblo.
One animal was reported to the DOW by a landowner west of Bonny Reservoir. It was in poor physical condition at the time of death. The second animal, in GMU 84, was a road kill picked up by DOW personnel west of Pueblo on Highway 96.
Tissues from both animals were submitted to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Diagnostics Laboratory and both had positive test results.
In addition, two more deer harvested by hunters at Fort Carson in GMU 591 this year tested positive for CWD.
Some late hunting seasons in Colorado continue through the end of January, and all successful hunters are encouraged to submit their animals for testing. In some units, including Fort Carson, the DOW has waived CWD testing fees encourage more hunters to have their animals tested.
So far this year over 5,000 elk, 6,000 deer and 133 moose had been tested in Colorado. Elk submissions by hunters were down about 15 percent despite an increase in over the counter license sales of about eight percent, suggesting hunter interest in testing is waning or harvest was down or both.
Chronic Wasting Disease affects the brains of deer, elk and moose. Brain tissue of infected animals degenerates causing weight loss, abnormal behavior and eventually, death.
For more information about CWD, log onto: http://wildlife.state.co.us/cwd/index.asp
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE OF ELK AND DEER AND CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SCRAPIE PRION PROTEIN*
Zhiliang Xie‡, Katherine I. O’Rourke§, Zhiqian Dong‡, Allen L. Jenny¶, Julie A. Langenberg║, Ermias D. Belay#, Lawrence B. Schonberger#, Robert B. Petersen‡, Wenquan Zou‡, Qingzhong Kong‡, Pierluigi Gambetti‡, and Shu G. Chen‡&
From the ‡Institute of Pathology and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106; §USDA Agricultural Research Services, Animal Disease Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164; ¶USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa 50010; ║Wildlife Health Program, Bureau of Wildlife Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI 53707 and #Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333.
& To whom correspondence should be addressed: Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106. Tel: (216) 368-8925; Fax: (216) 368-2546; E-mail: email@example.com.
Running Title: PrPSc in CWD and CJD
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible prion disease that affects elk and deer, poses new challenges to animal and human public health. Although the transmission of CWD to humans has not been proven, it remains a possibility. If this were to occur, it is important to know whether the "acquired" human prion disease would show a phenotype including the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) features that differ from those associated with human sporadic prion disease. In this study, we have compared the pathological profiles and PrPSc characteristics in brains of CWD-affected elk and deer with that in subjects with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), as well as CJD-affected subjects who might have been exposed to CWD, using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, conformation stability assay (CSA) and N-terminal protein sequencing. Spongiform changes and intense PrPSc staining were present in several brain regions of CWD-affected animals. Immunoblotting revealed three proteinase K (PK)-resistant bands in CWD, representing different glycoforms of PrPSc. Following deglycosylation, the unglycosylated PK-resistant PrPSc of CWD migrated at 21kDa with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of type 1 human PrPSc present in sporadic CJD affecting subjects homozygous for methionine at codon 129 (sCJDMM1). N-terminal sequencing showed that the PK cleavage site of PrPSc in CWD occurred at residues 82 and 78, similar to that of PrPSc in sCJDMM1. Furthermore, CSA also showed no significant difference between elk CWD PrPSc and the PrPSc species associated with sCJDMM1. However, there was a major difference in glycoform ratio of PrPSc between CWD and sCJDMM1 affecting both CWD-exposed and non-exposed subjects. Moreover, PrPSc of CWD exhibited a distinct constellation of glycoforms distinguishable from that of sCJDMM1 in two-dimensional immunoblots. These findings underline the importance of detailed PrPSc characterization in trying to detect novel forms of acquired prion disease. ...
please note that scrapie transmits to primates by there non-forced oral consumption of scrapie tainted material.
J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
http://neurology.thelancet.com Published online October 31, 2005
Coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in individuals with
Magdalini Polymenidou, Katharina Stoeck, Markus Glatzel, Martin Vey, Anne Bellon, and Adriano Aguzzi
Background The molecular typing of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is based on the size and glycoform
ratio of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc), and on PRNP haplotype. On digestion with proteinase K, type 1 and
type 2 PrPSc display unglycosylated core fragments of 21 kDa and 19 kDa, resulting from cleavage around amino
acids 82 and 97, respectively.
Methods We generated anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies to epitopes immediately preceding the differential proteinase
K cleavage sites. These antibodies, which were designated POM2 and POM12, recognise type 1, but not type 2, PrPSc.
Findings We studied 114 brain samples from 70 patients with sporadic CJD and three patients with variant CJD.
Every patient classified as CJD type 2, and all variant CJD patients, showed POM2/POM12 reactivity in the
cerebellum and other PrPSc-rich brain areas, with a typical PrPSc type 1 migration pattern.
Interpretation The regular coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in patients with CJD casts doubts on the validity of
electrophoretic PrPSc mobilities as surrogates for prion strains, and questions the rational basis of current CJD
The above results set the existing CJD classifications
into debate and introduce interesting questions about
human CJD types. For example, do human prion types
exist in a dynamic equilibrium in the brains of affected
individuals? Do they coexist in most or even all CJD
cases? Is the biochemically identified PrPSc type simply
the dominant type, and not the only PrPSc species?
http://neurology.thelancet.com Published online October 31, 2005
##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################
New Mexico Department of Game and Fish
Media contact: Dan Williams, (505) 476-8004
Public contact: (505) 476-8000
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, DEC. 9, 2005:
TWO NEW MEXICO ELK TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
SANTA FE - Two elk killed in the southern Sacramento Mountains of southeast
New Mexico have tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), the
Department of Game and Fish announced. The animals were the first elk in New
Mexico to test positive for CWD since the disease was first discovered in
mule deer in 2002.
Both CWD-afflicted elk were killed in an area 10 to 15 miles southeast of
Cloudcroft in Game Management Unit 34, the same general area where the
state's most recent case of CWD was detected in a mule deer. One of the
elk - a mature male -- was taken Oct. 3 by a hunter and showed no symptoms
of the disease. The other elk - a yearling female -- was in very poor
condition and unable to stand when a Department of Game and Fish
conservation officer found it Oct. 1. Testing and verification of the
samples required about two months. Future testing is expected to occur more
quickly as the Department of Game and Fish and the Veterinary Diagnostic
Services in the New Mexico Department of Agriculture further implement
recently achieved in-state CWD testing capabilities.
"The range in which the disease is found appears to be expanding, so finding
it in more animals in that area is not surprising," said Kerry Mower, the
Department's lead wildlife disease biologist. "But it is disappointing to
find our first cases of CWD in free-ranging elk."
Brain stem samples from the two elk were among more than 100 taken from deer
and elk in Unit 34 this year and sent to the Veterinary Diagnostic Services
Laboratory in Albuquerque. The Albuquerque laboratory's "presumptive
positive" samples from the two elk were confirmed as CWD-positive by the
National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa.
"We will continue our efforts to monitor the disease by actively testing
animals in Units 34 and 19," Mower said. "We also encourage all hunters
statewide to submit their animals for testing." The Department personally
informs hunters if the tests are positive. Hunters will be able to see the
complete list of test results as they become available on the Department Web
site, http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us .
This season, hunters who kill animals in a "Control Area" of Unit 34 are
required to submit their animals for testing and observe special regulations
affecting which body parts of a deer or elk can be removed from the unit.
Hunting seasons continue in that area into January.
Chronic wasting disease is a fatal neurological illness that afflicts deer,
elk and moose. There is no evidence of CWD being transmitted to humans or
livestock. The disease causes animals to become emaciated, display abnormal
behavior and lose control of bodily functions. To date, it has been found in
captive and wild deer, elk and moose in eight states and two Canadian
The origin of CWD in New Mexico is unknown. It has been found in 12 wild
deer and two wild elk since 2002, when the disease was first discovered east
of Las Cruces. All of the CWD-positive deer and elk in New Mexico were from
the southern Sacramento Mountains southeast of Cloudcroft and areas
surrounding the Organ Mountains near Las Cruces.
For more information about CWD in New Mexico, including special regulations
and how hunters can assist in research and prevention, visit the Department
Web site at http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us . More information about CWD also can
be found on the Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance site at http://www.cwd-info.org/
or on the Colorado Division of Wildlife site at
CWD CONTROL MAP NM
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Tuesday, June 28, 2005 11:32 AM
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NM)
> CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVIDS - USA (NEW MEXICO)
> A ProMED-mail post
> ProMED-mail is a program of the
> International Society for Infectious Diseases
> Date: 24 Jun 2005
> From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
> Source: New Mexico Wildlife News, Mon, 27 Jun 2005 [edited]
> 2 Mule Deer Test Positive For Chronic Wasting Disease
> 2 mule deer captured in the Organ Mountains as part of an ongoing
> research project near White Sands Missile Range have tested positive
> for chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal neurological disease that
> attacks the brains of infected deer and elk, the Department of Game
> and Fish announced.
> The number of confirmed CWD cases in New Mexico now stands at 11
> since 2002, when the disease was first confirmed in a deer found near
> the eastern foothills of the Organ Mountains. All 11 CWD-infected
> deer were found in the same general area of southern New Mexico. The
> origin of the disease in New Mexico remains unknown. The carcasses of
> the infected deer will be incinerated, said Kerry Mower, the
> Department's lead wildlife disease biologist.
> Mower said the most recent CWD-positive deer showed no obvious
> physical signs of having the disease. They were captured in April
> 2005 and tested as part of a 3-year-old research project studying
> deer population dynamics in southern New Mexico. More than 140 deer
> have been captured alive and tested for the study, in which
> researchers hope to find the cause of a 10-year decline in the area
> deer population. Study participants include the Department of Game
> and Fish, the U.S. Army at White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss,
> Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey at New Mexico State
> University, and San Andres National Wildlife Refuge.
> Hunters can assist the Department in its CWD research and prevention
> efforts by bringing their fresh, legally harvested deer or elk head
> to an area office, where officers will remove the brain stem for
> testing. Participants will be eligible for drawings for an oryx hunt
> on White Sands Missile Range and a trophy elk hunt on the Valle
> Vidal. For more information about the drawing and chronic wasting
> disease, visit the Department web site at
> See map:
> [Members are strongly encouraged to view the NM CWD map at the URL
> below. In 2004 they tested 997 deer, each shown. These recent deer
> are clustered with the others just to the east of Las Cruces in
> southern New Mexico. The absence of cases elsewhere in the state at
> this level of surveillance increases one's confidence in the reality
> of this specific high-risk area. The origin of their infection is
> still obscure.
> The New Mexico CWD website is:
> Unfortunately, other than their admirable map, they have not been
> updated since 14 Jun 2004.
> The site being close to Texas and to Mexico has spawned speculation,
> but as yet without foundation. In the past 3 years Texas has tested
> some 9103 deer out of a target population estimate of 3 917 926, all
> negative. For details of the Texas Chronic Wasting Management Plan,
> go to:
> or the Texas Animal Health Commission CWD website:
> - Mod.MHJ]
> [see also:
> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NM) (02) 20030217.0414
> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NM) 20030207.0328
> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (New Mexico) (02) 20020620.4548
> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (New Mexico) 20020619.4535]
> ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
> are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
> information, and of any statements or opinions based
> thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
> using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
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> Visit ProMED-mail's web site at .
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#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################
HUMAN TSE USA 2005
Animal Prion Diseases Relevant to Humans (unknown types?)
Thu Oct 27, 2005 12:05
About Human Prion Diseases /
Animal Prion Diseases Relevant to Humans
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease of cattle. Since 1986, when BSE was recognized, over 180,000 cattle in the UK have developed the disease, and approximately one to three million are likely to have been infected with the BSE agent, most of which were slaughtered for human consumption before developing signs of the disease. The origin of the first case of BSE is unknown, but the epidemic was caused by the recycling of processed waste parts of cattle, some of which were infected with the BSE agent and given to other cattle in feed. Control measures have resulted in the consistent decline of the epidemic in the UK since 1992. Infected cattle and feed exported from the UK have resulted in smaller epidemics in other European countries, where control measures were applied later.
Compelling evidence indicates that BSE can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of prion contaminated meat. BSE-infected individuals eventually develop vCJD with an incubation time believed to be on average 10 years. As of November 2004, three cases of BSE have been reported in North America. One had been imported to Canada from the UK, one was grown in Canada, and one discovered in the USA but of Canadian origin. There has been only one case of vCJD reported in the USA, but the patient most likely acquired the disease in the United Kingdom. If current control measures intended to protect public and animal health are well enforced, the cattle epidemic should be largely under control and any remaining risk to humans through beef consumption should be very small. (For more details see Smith et al. British Medical Bulletin, 66: 185. 2003.)
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a prion disease of elk and deer, both free range and in captivity. CWD is endemic in areas of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, but new foci of this disease have been detected in Nebraska, South Dakota, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Mississippi Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Montana, and Canada. Since there are an estimated 22 million elk and deer in the USA and a large number of hunters who consume elk and deer meat, there is the possibility that CWD can be transmitted from elk and deer to humans. As of November 2004, the NPDPSC has examined 26 hunters with a suspected prion disease. However, all of them appeared to have either typical sporadic or familial forms of the disease. The NPDPSC coordinates with the Centers for Disease Control and state health departments to monitor cases from CWD-endemic areas. Furthermore, it is doing experimental research on CWD transmissibility using animal models. (For details see Sigurdson et al. British Medical Bulletin. 66: 199. 2003 and Belay et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10(6): 977. 2004.)
SEE STEADY INCREASE IN SPORADIC CJD IN THE USA FROM 1997 TO 2004. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, and that is with a human TSE surveillance system that is terrible flawed. in 1997 cases of the _reported_ cases of cjd were at 54, to 163 _reported_ cases in 2004. see stats here;
p.s. please note the 47 PENDING CASES to Sept. 2005
p.s. please note the 2005 Prion D. total 120(8) 8=includes 51 type pending, 1 TYPE UNKNOWN ???
p.s. please note sporadic CJD 2002(1) 1=3 TYPE UNKNOWN???
p.s. please note 2004 prion disease (6) 6=7 TYPE UNKNOWN???
CWD TO HUMANS = sCJD ???
AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that
transmission of BSE to other species will invariably
present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.
ATYPICAL TSEs in USA CATTLE AND SHEEP ?
Infected and Source Flocks
As of August 31, 2005, there were 115 scrapie infected and source flocks (figure 3). There were 3 new infected and source flocks reported in August (Figure 4) with a total of 148 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 102 (Figure 6), with 5 flocks released in August. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.69 :
1. In addition, as of August 31, 2005, 574 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 122 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 55 newly confirmed cases in August 2005 (Figure 8). Fifteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in May 2005.
full text ;
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE UPDATE 2005 (03)
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail, a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Sponsored in part by Elsevier, publisher of
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Date 18 Oct 2005
From: Terry S Singeltary Sr
Source: Utah Division of Wildlife Resources [edited]
2 buck deer taken during this year's Utah muzzleloader hunt have tested
positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), the Division of Wildlife
Resources announced on 17 Oct 2005.
The 1st deer was a yearling buck taken near the south end of Flaming Gorge
Reservoir. This is the 1st CWD positive deer found in Daggett County. Other
CWD positive deer have been found in the past just 20 miles to the south,
near Vernal. The 2nd deer to test positive was a mature buck taken on the
LaSal Mountains in south eastern Utah.
Both of the hunters who took the deer have been notified that their animals
tested positive for CWD. "We've tested approximately 450 deer and elk so
far this year, and these are the only animals that have tested positive for
CWD," said Leslie McFarlane, wildlife disease specialist for the DWR.
"Nearly all of the testing has been completed on samples collected during
the archery and muzzleloader hunts. We expect to collect nearly 2000
samples during the rifle deer hunt that starts this weekend."
The Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Logan is testing the samples
for the DWR. The latest finds bring to 20 the number of deer that have
tested positive for CWD since the disease was first found in Utah in
February 2003. 14 of the 20 deer have come from the LaSal Mountain area,
where DWR biologists estimate about 2 per cent of the deer have the disease.
Of the remaining deer, 4 came from the Vernal area, 1 was taken near the
south end of Flaming Gorge, and one was killed near Fountain Green in
CWD is fatal to deer and elk that contract it. However, according to the
World Health Organization, "There is currently no evidence that CWD in
cervidae (deer and elk) is transmitted to humans."
Date: 18 Oct 2005
From: Terry S Singeltary Sr
Source: Utah Division of Wildlife Resources [edited]
Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR) personnel are in the process of
monitoring the presence and prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in
the State of Utah. A small number of deer harvested in the state have
tested positive for CWD during the past 4 years. Sportsmen participating in
the general season rifle hunt, which opens 22 Oct 2005, are encouraged to
participate in this disease monitoring effort.
Testing for the disease is done by removing the lymph nodes from the throat
of the deer. The abnormal prions (proteins) indicative of CWD tend to
accumulate in these lymph node tissues. Lymph node samples from each deer
sampled are sent to a laboratory in Logan and hunters can learn whether the
deer has tested positive for CWD within 4 weeks.
Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that the disease can be
transmitted to humans by eating or handling meat of infected animals.
However, it is advised that hunters avoid consumption and direct contact
with brain tissues, spinal fluids, and lymph nodes.
DWR personnel will be taking disease samples from deer harvested throughout
the south eastern region. Hunters may encounter officers in the field or at
check stations. Hunters who are not contacted and have questions regarding
CWD can contact the Price DWR office at (435) 636-0260 during business
hours, or (435) 820-8921 during non-business hours.
Date: 18 Nov 2005
From: Terry S Singeltary Sr
Source: New Hampshire State Wildlife, 9 Nov 2005 [edited]
Officials from the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department announced today
that 2 hunters have been cited for illegally importing whole deer from New
York State, a state where chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been detected.
The 2 deer were confiscated and destroyed as part of ongoing attempts to
protect New Hampshire's deer and moose populations from the threat of CWD,
a disease -- fatal to some members of the deer family -- that is found in
16 US states and Canadian provinces.
"The threat posed by CWD to New Hampshire's deer herd is of serious concern
to us," said Lee Perry, Fish and Game's executive director. "Hunters who
hunt out of state need to abide by the rules, which are designed to allow
people to bring their deer back to New Hampshire without putting the
state's herd at risk." The confiscated deer from New York, not yet
butchered, were incinerated to destroy any potentially contagious material.
Current NH regulations allow for the importation into New Hampshire of only
deboned meat, antlers, upper canine teeth, and/or hides or capes with no
part of the head attached of deer and elk, from the 16 states and provinces
where CWD has been confirmed. These include Alberta, Canada; Colorado;
Illinois; Kansas; Minnesota; Montana; Nebraska; New Mexico; New York;
Oklahoma; Saskatchewan, Canada; South Dakota; Utah; Wisconsin; West
Virginia (the newest addition to the list), and Wyoming.
Antlers attached to skull caps or canine teeth must have all soft tissue
removed. More information on CWD is found on pages 6 and 60 of the current
New Hampshire Hunting Digest or [go to the URL above and click here] for
New Hampshire-related questions and answers about CWD.
A CWD monitoring and testing program for wild deer has been conducted in
New Hampshire by Fish and Game biologists since 2002. There is no evidence
that this disease exists in the New Hampshire deer herd, and the rules and
testing program are designed to prevent exposure via infected animals being
imported from other areas.
CWD is a contagious neurological disease that is fatal to deer, moose, elk,
and other members of the cervid (deer) family. It is classified as a
transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or TSE, and it attacks the brains
of infected animals, resulting in their becoming emaciated, exhibiting
abnormal behavior and eventually dying.
State officials remind hunters and others who enjoy eating venison that CWD
is a wildlife management issue, not a public health issue. There is no
evidence that CWD is linked to disease in humans.
[In states where CWD is present, it would not be unexpected to find it
during the hunting season. Many states have a hunter surveillance program.
Most often the harvested animal is taken to a station where samples are
collected for testing for CWD.
Clearly NH is being very diligent in its efforts to keep CWD out of the
state. However, there is no mention that these animals were tested for the
It is believed that infected deer from other states transported into NY for
taxidermy work introduced the disease into NY. The taxidermist in NY did
not dispose of the deer offal in the recommended manner, but rather spread
it around the fence line, thus giving curious captive and wild deer
opportunity to come into contact with the intestines of the infected deer.
Since prions are believed to be presented to the neurological system
through the intestines, and cervidae are curious animals that taste what is
new in their environment, it is possible this was the method of
introduction of the disease to NY.
For hunters hunting outside of their home state, it appropriate to know the
regulations regarding bringing carcasses home. - Mod.TG]
Chronic wasting disease, moose - USA (CO) 20050930.2865
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (AB) 20050907.2650
Chronic wasting disease - USA (WV) 20050904.2615
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - Canada (SK) 20050706.1917
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NM) 20050628.1827
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NY)(05) 20050505.1241
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NY)(04) 20050428.1187
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NY) (03): human exposure 20050409.1028
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NY)(02) 20050402.0952
Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (NY) 20050331.0932
Chronic wasting disease update 2005 (02) 20050201.0346
Chronic wasting disease update 2005 20050131.0337]
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
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From: TSS ()
Subject: CWD SPREADING IN WYOMING ! what about scrapieTSE and bseTSE ?
Date: November 29, 2005 at 10:35 am PST
From: TSS ()
Subject: CWD SPREADING IN WYOMING !
Date: November 29, 2005 at 9:41 am PST
CWD DETECTED IN NEW HUNT AREA NEAR NEWCASTLE
CASPER - A white-tailed deer harvested in Hunt Area 9 near Newcastle has tested positive for chronic wasting disease. The disease had not previously been found in deer Hunt Area 9.
The deer was harvested on a ranch southeast of Newcastle in early October. The area is open to hunting for doe and fawn deer until Nov. 30 with 200 doe/fawn licenses, according to Wyoming Game and Fish Department regulations.
“It’s not a surprise that CWD was found in Hunt Area 9,” said Scott Edberg, wildlife supervisor for the Game and Fish’s Casper Region. “The disease has previously been found in the same drainage about 18 miles downstream in South Dakota, and across (U.S.) highway 16 in Hunt Area 6.”
Hunt Area 9 borders the Wyoming/South Dakota state line. Edberg said area landowners are cooperating with CWD research efforts by allowing hunters to harvest antlerless deer and submit them for testing.
The Game and Fish will continue to collect as many samples as possible from deer harvested in the area and killed by vehicles on adjacent highways. CWD surveillance sampling stations will be set up at the Old Mill in Newcastle and at C&A Meats in Sundance Nov. 18-20 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
“We encourage all hunters harvesting deer in northeast Wyoming to stop by a surveillance sampling station and have their animal tested,” Edberg said. Collecting additional samples will help the Game and Fish understand how widespread the disease is in the area.
In addition to the positive test in Deer Area 9, a third deer has tested positive for CWD in Hunt Area 8, southwest of Upton. Although Hunt Area 8 is considered an endemic area (the disease has already been documented in this area), there have been only two positives per year since 2003. The most recent positive sample was from a white-tailed deer. The previous positives were from mule deer.
CWD is a fatal neurological disease that has been diagnosed in wild deer, elk and moose. Animals show no apparent signs of illness throughout much of the course of the disease. In terminal stages of CWD, animals typically are emaciated and display abnormal behavior.
There is no confirmed link between CWD and any human illness.
For more information on chronic wasting disease visit the Game and Fish Web site at http://gf.state.wy.us.
(contact: Robin Kepple (307) 473-3400)
CWD FOUND IN NEW AREA IN BIG HORN BASIN
THERMOPOLIS – Two mature mule deer bucks harvested in hunt area 127 immediately northwest of Thermopolis have tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease that can affect all members of Wyoming’s deer family. CWD had not previously been detected in this area.
Worland Wildlife Biologist Bart Kroger collected lymph nodes from the deer Oct. 17 as part of the Wyoming Game and Fish Department’s CWD surveillance effort. Both samples were tested at the department’s laboratory in Laramie and tested positive for CWD.
CWD testing is a two-pronged approach, according to Cody Region Wildlife Management Coordinator Kevin Hurley. “The first test is an immunologic test called the ELISA. When a sample tests positive, it is termed a ‘presumptive positive’ until the results from a second IHC (immunohistochemistry) test is known,” Hurley said. “In nearly every case, when the ELISA turns up a presumptive positive, it is confirmed positive by the IHC.”
The two samples from area 127 tested positive for first the ELISA test and then the IHC test on Oct. 28.
In an effort to manage the spread of CWD and to understand how widespread it might be in an area, the department considers taking aggressive actions when cases are found in new areas. In this case, Game and Fish Deputy Director Gregg Arthur has instructed personnel in the Cody region to remove up to 50 deer within a five-mile radius of where the area 127 deer were harvested.
“I have asked our Cody personnel to move forward and collect additional samples. This action is consistent with the best science and the department’s CWD Management Plan,” Arthur said. He added that surveillance in other states has shown that it may be possible to slow down the spread of CWD if new cases of CWD are identified early.
According to Arthur, the additional sampling serves three purposes. First, it allows the Game and Fish to determine the prevalence of CWD in an area. Secondly, it may eliminate CWD in an area and prevent its spread to other areas. And thirdly, it may allow the Game and Fish to locate an area of infection that it can manage aggressively.
“Should more positives turn up, we will expand our efforts,” Arthur said.
The Game and Fish will conduct the removal harvesting both adult males and females between Oct. 27 and mid-November during daytime and nighttime hours. Research has demonstrated that samples taken from adult males and adult females are more likely to indicate if CWD is present than taking samples from younger-aged animals.
All of the animals collected will be field dressed and held in cold storage until the absence or presence of CWD in each is known. The meat from deer testing negative will be donated to individuals and families in need. Carcasses testing positive will be disposed of in an approved landfill in accordance with the Game and Fish CWD transportation regulation.
CWD is a fatal neurological disease that has been diagnosed in wild deer and elk in 10 states and two Canadian provinces. Animals show no apparent signs of illness throughout much of disease course. In terminal stages of CWD, animals typically are emaciated and display abnormal behavior.
There is no confirmed link between CWD and any human illness.
For more information on chronic wasting disease visit the Game and Fish Web site http://gf.state.wy.us
(contact: Dennie Hammer or Kevin Hurley (307) 527-7125)
CWD FOUND IN DEER AND ELK IN NEW AREA SOUTH OF LARAMIE
LARAMIE – The first deer and elk to test positive for chronic wasting disease in deer hunt area 77 and elk hunt area 8 south of Laramie were discovered this hunting season by the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory and Game and Fish Department.
The discovery was not surprising because CWD has been confirmed in all surrounding hunt areas in both Wyoming and Colorado, according to Bob Lanka, Game and Fish wildlife management coordinator in Laramie.
Both animals testing positive south of Laramie were hunter-killed adult females. The deer was taken on Jelm Mountain Oct. 2 and the elk on Boulder Ridge very near the Colorado border Oct. 3.
“Even though we expected CWD to show up in this area at some time, it is still a little disappointing when we have to add another hunt area to the list of positive areas,” Lanka said.
Hank Edwards, wildlife disease specialist in charge of testing and mapping CWD data, reports his crew has examined the lymph nodes from 1,800 hunter-harvested deer and elk this fall for CWD and expects to test a total of over 4,000 samples this year. No other new area hunt areas in Wyoming have been discovered with CWD this fall.
CWD is a communicable disease of the deer family caused by an abnormal protein or prion. There is no evidence that CWD can infect humans.
As tests are completed the Game and Fish will keep the public informed of any other cases of CWD found in new hunt areas.
(contact: Michelle Zitek (307) 745-4046)
WYOMING GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE MANAGEMENT PLAN
August 19, 2005
• It is the purpose of this plan to provide flexible and adaptable direction for management of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).
• The plan will be reviewed and updated as the CWD situation in Wyoming changes and additional information becomes available.
• The plan consists of four components: Disease Management, Applied Research, Public Information, and Funding.
• Based upon the known epidemiology of CWD in free-ranging deer and elk, eradication currently is not a justified or realistic disease management objective.
• The WGFD will work to minimize the spread of CWD and coordinate CWD management with other state and federal agencies.
• The WGFD will conduct surveillance to determine spatial distribution and prevalence of CWD, and coordinate CWD research with other state and federal agencies.
• The WGFD will provide timely, complete, and accurate information about CWD.
• Although there are concerns or perceptions by some people that CWD could be a livestock or human health threat, there currently is no credible supporting evidence; consequently, this plan addresses CWD as a disease of deer and elk.
• The WGFD will continue to work cooperatively with the Wyoming Department of Public Health and other human health organizations worldwide to monitor current research on CWD and human health and to provide up-to-date information to the public.
• Many very expensive CWD management, research, and public outreach activities are driven by the consideration of CWD as an international disease of concern; therefore, federal funding is appropriate for complete implementation of this plan.
WHAT WILL cwdCJD LOOK LIKE IN HUMANS IN WYOMING ???
Subject: Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions to
Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)
Date: October 19, 2005 at 8:33 am PST
Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Interspecies Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions to Squirrel
Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)
Richard F. Marsh,1, Anthony E. Kincaid,2 Richard A. Bessen,3 and Jason C.
Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of
Wisconsin, Madison 53706,1 Department of Physical Therapy,2 Department of
Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
68178,4 Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State
University, Bozeman, Montana 597183
Received 3 May 2005/ Accepted 10 August 2005
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer and elk.
The risk of CWD transmission to humans following exposure to CWD-infected
tissues is unknown. To assess the susceptibility of nonhuman primates to
CWD, two squirrel monkeys were inoculated with brain tissue from a
CWD-infected mule deer. The CWD-inoculated squirrel monkeys developed a
progressive neurodegenerative disease and were euthanized at 31 and 34
months postinfection. Brain tissue from the CWD-infected squirrel monkeys
contained the abnormal isoform of the prion protein, PrP-res, and displayed
spongiform degeneration. This is the first reported transmission of CWD to
* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Medical Microbiology
and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE
68178. Phone: (402) 280-1811. Fax: (402) 280-1875. E-mail:
Journal of Virology, November 2005, p. 13794-13796, Vol. 79, No. 21
Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
SCRAPIE IN WYOMING
Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory Newsletter Vol 3(#2):July, 2002
Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory
1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, WY 82070
TEL: (800) 442-8331 FAX: (307) 721-2051
University of Wyoming
Scrapie in Wyoming
Scrapie infected flocks are being detected at the rate of about one per month in
Wyoming. Live animal testing reveals that classical signs of scrapie (pruritis; severe weight loss)
are not always present. In fact, we have detected several cases of scrapie in completely
asymptomatic sheep. Practitioners should include scrapie as a rule-out whenever a progressive,
debilitating illness is noted in 3 -5 year old sheep, particularly black-face breeds. Please recall
that goats can be infected with scrapie, too.
Wyoming requires that live scrapie suspects be reported. The USDA, in collaboration
with the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory and other state diagnostic laboratories, is doing
research on scrapie infected sheep and goats. This research requires numerous tissues be
collected from live suspects (e.g. eyelid biopsy, blood for genetic testing) or that freshly
harvested tissues (e.g. placentomes, gut lymph nodes) be collected at necropsy. Indemnity is
paid for live scrapie suspects. The USDA will provide reasonable transportation costs for
clinically suspect sheep. Live suspects should be transported to Wyoming State Veterinary
Laboratory for necropsy and collection of samples for the USDA.
Please report live clinical scrapie suspects to USDA @ 772-2186 or WLSB @ 777-7515.
1 goat scrapie case Wyoming
RSSS postive samples
BSE TESTING WYOMING ???
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY
A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem
Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.
It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
Infected and Source Flocks
As of August 31, 2005, there were 115 scrapie infected and source flocks (figure 3). There were 3 new infected and source flocks reported in August (Figure 4) with a total of 148 flocks repor