Where I hunt deer also has cattle. The two do not mix and the deer pull into the woods until the cattle walk by. The deer then come back out in a short time. The same happens with horses. The do not get driven out by the cows.
I hunt around alot of cattle. Most of the time the deer will avoid the cattle, but they won't leave the area. They just kind of skirt around them. I've seen deer come right in and eat with cattle and I've seen a group of bulls nearly kill a nice buck. A lot depends on the temperment of your cattle also. The cattle that are pastured on the back 80 way out in the boonies are going to be more protective and skittish compared to the ones pastured close to home and have more domestic contact.
The biggest issue I remember from home with deer and cattle was that the cattle kept the pasture grazed over so well that there was nothing really left for the deer except browse, so they opted to feed elsewhere - namely our hayfields or even right in our yard from the haybales or graineries in the years when we were "between dogs".
Also over time in a dedicated pasture such as ours the cattle would tramp out all low-lying brush along the sides of the coulee eliminating the ground cover deer prefer for bedding areas. Deer definitely travelled through our pasture regularly... the cattle's salt lick always had fresh deer tracks around it every morning.
One thing I had happen to me while hunting around cattle -
Killed a deer and dragged it about 200 yards through the pasture until I came to a small creek. All the while about 20 head of cattle are giving me the greasy eye and start moseying my direction... no big deal, they probably think I have hay.
So I leave the deer, go through the gate and get the ATV to go get the deer. (Can't see the deer from the gate as it is in the creek bottom.) Go back through gate on ATV and as I go down to the creek I see cattle milling around and a heifer with calf kinda circling the deer. "Wow, this is new," I think as I continue driving. THEN I see this big mother of a bull staring at me and he does not looked pleased. As soon as I stop Death Bull starts tossing his hornless but massive head and doing that ass-stomping shuffle bulls do before they pounce. He's about 50 yards from me across the creek and thank God there was enough room to turn that Polaris around.
He never charged that I was aware of ( I didn't stop to look), but he would have discovered 160 grains of persuasion in his chops had he tried. I guess they weren't too happy I whacked their deer friend, who knows? They were gone after I returned a couple hours later with reinforcements and a fresh pair of panties.
Moral: Pack extra boxers when hunting among cattle you don't know.
I could see the small band of mule deer picking their way towards me through the sagebrush 800 plus yards away. With my 10 power binoculars I spotted a legal buck bringing up the tail. I dropped down and crouched behind a large chunk of sage just waiting for them to pass within range. Unfortunately, they stopped and began milling around before finally settling down, with a few of them laying down right out in the open. They were not going to come to me; if I wanted any closer, I'd...