A 45-70 shoots like a rainbow, the further away a target is the higher you need to aim. For any of the animals that you listed except for the brown bear I would have to say that 150 yards would be max. For the bear I would keep it under 100 yards just for the simple fact that you don't want to make him mad.
A lot of brown and black bears have fallen to that round and I would figure that most of them have been under 100 yards.
I totally agree with you critter on the 150 yds with the 45-70. Like you mentioned they have a trajectory like a rainbow. Definetly would'nt be my 1st choice for an open area where shots could surpass 200 yds
I must admit that I have missed a big game animal with a rifle. And not only was it a bull elk, it was the largest bull that I have had in my sights with a tag in my hand. But, as with most "missed shot" stories, I have an excuse. Moisture doesn't really ever bode well for hunting equipment. When moisture (either rain or snow) gets into a firearms barrel, nothing good takes place. A couple rain drops down there can change the point of impact drastically and a barrel jammed with snow after a...