Dropping the Hammer

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If you're a serious gun nut and you haven't noticed the increased interest in shooting, reloading and hunting with old style guns in the last decade you've probably been in a coma. Rifles and shotguns that haven't come out of the closet in eighty years are being brought into the daylight, getting cleaned off and carried out to ranges and hunting fields. This particularly includes classic old lever action and single shot rifles. I haven't been immune from this old-gun bug myself, as an 1894 lever action in .38-55 is one of my current project guns.


Firearms with external hammers are common. At the top is a lever-action rifle,
a pump-action shotgun occupies the middle spot and at the bottom, a bolt-action .22

The Winchester I'm working on is a great example because it's been in production for well over one hundred years. But that old lever gun and all the other golden oldies hunting again aren't the same guns Winchester and other manufacturers are producing today. Today's guns might look similar but they are built of better materials, to tighter tolerances and have improved safety features. On the 94 in particular, the manufacturer has added a tang safety and a rebounding hammer. And while I often hear knowledgeable gun people bemoaning the addition of a safety as a cosmetic detraction, I never hear anyone complaining it makes the gun less safe. While those same Winchester experts will know every intricacy of the 94's mechanism, including how to use it properly and safely, too many hunters don't. A recent incident I'm familiar with serves as an illustration.


Hunting with older guns, like this lever-action, can be dangerous if you
don't understand the principles of handling an external hammer.

Ignorance can kill
Two friends went out after moose, one of them carrying an older Winchester 94. By today's standards that is hardly a state of the art moose rifle and the hunter in question had more than one ultra-modern rifle at home. For whatever reason, he chose to use the older 94 that day. By all accounts, he was a skilled and capable hunter. However, he didn't understand the manual of arms for the 94 and in this case, what he didn't know killed him.

As a testimony to their skill and abilities, these two had a moose on the ground before noon. The available evidence then shows that when the shooting stopped, our hunter pointed the rifle in a safe direction and carefully and conscientiously lowered the cocked hammer.

In the process of moving his truck up to the kill, our man with the 94 had occasion to rest the butt of the rifle on the running board. Being safety conscious he pointed the muzzle upwards in a safe direction as he fiddled with something else, confident in the knowledge that although the rifle chamber was loaded, the hammer was safely down. But like many hunting days it was wet and snowy and the running board was slippery. Somehow, in all the activity, the Winchester slipped off the running board and the rifle fell butt first toward the ground; his grip was still on the barrel, but it was insufficient to slow its fall.

From the heel of the butt to the spur of the hammer is about fourteen inches and the rifle weighs six and one quarter pounds. When the rifle fell, it dropped all of those fourteen inches and the spur of the hammer struck the running board with what was probably most of the rifle's weight. The rifle discharged and the bullet struck the owner, killing him.

Was this a bizarre accident resulting from freak circumstances; or maybe a failure of the firearm's safety devices? What about operator error? Do you know why the gun discharged? If you or a friend has a hammer gun sitting in the closet, then you better read on.

How do you hunt?
There isn't a hunter in the country that would walk the woods with a round in the chamber of a lever-gun and the hammer at full cock. It's too dangerous and it's obvious that it's dangerous. At the same time, I'll bet you a steak dinner there are a significant number of hunters in the woods carrying old hammer guns with the chamber loaded and the hammer fully down; a condition which could be argued as being at least as, or even more dangerous, than carrying it with the hammer fully cocked. It's a safe bet for me, because since encountering the fatal incident mentioned above, I've been asking every shooter I encounter with a hammer gun to show me how they make such a loaded gun safe. Too many ease the hammer to a full down position on a loaded cartridge.

Why is this dangerous? Simple, with the hammer fully down, it rests on the firing pin, which is in direct contact with the primer. A sharp blow on the spur of the hammer and the rifle will fire.

The generation for which older external hammer guns were originally made was comfortable with the idea of manually operated, exposed hammers. Having the hammer visible and easily manipulated by the operator was considered a safety feature. That generation of gun-handlers was comfortable with the concept that a firearm with the hammer fully down wasn't necessarily safe, especially if it was loaded. Somehow, that principle has been lost to this generation. With the resurgence of interest in those old rifles, we need to relearn some of the lessons of our grandparents.

Hammer down is dangerous
We've already discussed lever action rifles, but there are other firearms we can add to the list as well; including a number of bolt action rimfires, pump-action .22's and lots of exposed hammer shotguns. Some of these models are no longer manufactured but others are, in modernized versions. It can be difficult to tell from serial number ranges or a visual examination when a firearm's internals have been changed. And how do you know some previous owner hasn't deactivated a safety feature?


This double-barrel shotgun demonstrates graphically how the hammer contacts
the firing pin, which in turn contacts the primer, even when the hammer is at rest.

But let's not limit our discussion to old guns. Have you ever seen someone load the chamber of a modern bolt-action rifle, and then while holding back the trigger, ease the bolt handle down? Their theory is that in this condition the rifle can't fire because it isn't cocked. And all that's needed to ready it for shooting is to lift up and press down on the bolt handle, thus cocking the rifle. They think they're being extra safe. Wrong! Depending on the design, their method is quite likely putting the firing pin in direct contact with the primer and even a light tap on the back of the bolt will fire the rifle.


In rifle design, it doesn't get any more modern than stainless steel and plastic.
But like an old fashioned hammer gun, if you lower the striker on a live
cartridge and hit the rear of the bolt, this rifle will fire.

To answer the question as to whether or not your particular firearm is dangerous to carry with the hammer down, do the following test. First, you'll need a primed cartridge case. That's no bullet, no powder, just an empty cartridge case with a live primer in place. If you're a reloader, it's a simple matter to make one up. If not, you'll have to pull the bullet from a factory round and dump the powder. This is easily done with an inertia bullet puller available from most gun shops. With a double and triple check to ensure your case is only primed, slip it into the chamber of your firearm. Carefully point it in a safe direction, close the action and gently lower the hammer to its full down position.


A kinetic bullet puller, like this RCBS model, will quickly and safely
convert center-fire cartridges into primed-only cases.

Then with the smallest hammer in your tool box, give the rear of the hammer a tap. Use about as much force as you might in driving a small finishing nail with that same hammer. Odds are your little tap will generate a little bang. If it did, any questions you had about the characteristics of your firearm are settled. The only thing left to do is repeat that demonstration to everyone who uses that particular gun. Don't just tell them about it. Telling is theoretical. Put a primed case in the rifle and repeat the test, showing them what happens. It's a lesson they won't forget.


Testing a pump-action .22 to determine if a blow to the hammer will discharge the rifle.

If silence was the result of your tap, you need to extract the cartridge case and take a close look at the primer. You're now down to two possibilities. Either your gun is safe for hammer down carry or you just didn't tap hard enough. A close inspection will tell you which the most likely scenario is. If there is any denting in the primer at all, you had some energy transfer and the firearm is unsafe to carry with the hammer down. If there is no mark at all, you may want to try repeating the test with a slightly harder hit. If there is still nothing, odds are you're okay for hammer down carry.


A Browning 92 demonstrates the three positions commonly found on guns
with external hammers; full-cock, half-cock (or safety position) and fully down.

What about half-cock?
Any discussion about hammer guns and in what condition they are safe to carry invariably turns to the half-cock or safety notch. This is an intermediate hammer position somewhere between fully down and fully cocked and is intended to keep the hammer away from direct contact with the firing pin. The most common question, once people understand its purpose is-is that intermediate notch safe?

I think the answer is the same in every case. It's far safer than hammer down-presuming the notch and sear are in good condition. Whether it's safe enough for carrying in that position is dependant on the firearm's individual design. Probably the best known example of one that isn't safe is the Colt Single Action Army revolver. That's why the universal recommendation to handle it with only five of its six chambers loaded, and the hammer down on the empty one. Lever action rifles, however, are generally far more durable and trustworthy. Each design has its own characteristics.

Short of taking your particular hammer gun apart and inspecting the parts, there are a couple of simple tests that will give you some indication of the gun's condition. First, with the hammer in the safety notch position and the gun empty, pull the trigger firmly. Apply approximately three times the amount of force normally required to fire the gun. If the hammer drops, your gun needs attention. A second test is to reposition the hammer in its half-cock or safety notch position and then using your thumbs, try pushing the hammer forward. This is called a push-off test. Obviously, the hammer shouldn't move. Never strike the hammer with another object to test the safety notch, use only a firm pushing motion. If your hammer gun passes both of these tests, the intermediate notch is probably in good condition.


In the half-cock or safety position the firearm's sear usually rests in a
deeply undercut hammer notch. On the right hand hammer this notch is intact;
on the left one the notch has broken out, making the gun unsafe.

Your gun checks out okay. Does that mean its safe to carry hammer down? It's still possible for the safety notch to break away completely and thus allow the gun to discharge. Certainly, you're not going to allow that to happen deliberately, but if sufficient force were to strike your hammer, it could shear and the result would be unstoppable.

You've come to the point where you have to find your own comfort level with the mechanism. The job I recently retired from required occasional attendance at autopsies and maybe it's a result of seeing too many gunshot wounds, but my comfort level with all safety mechanisms (not just safety-notches) is pitifully low.

Hunting choices
Perhaps an example will serve to illustrate. I sometimes use a lever action model 92 in .357 Magnum when I'm calling predators. When I leave my vehicle, I typically load five cartridges in the magazine and leave the chamber empty while walking in to my stand. Sure, I can blunder into a coyote while moving in, but a flick of the wrist is all that's necessary to go from safe to fire. When I reach my destination and set up to call, I lever a cartridge into the chamber and set the hammer at the intermediate notch. I judge that to be a safe condition considering the activity I'm engaging in.

Notice the difference. One situation is dynamic and active and for it I keep the chamber empty. The other is sedentary and in those circumstances I'm comfortable with a loaded chamber and a half cocked rifle. When I start to move again, I go back to chamber empty. That flexibility, in my opinion, is the key; adjust to the circumstances and you're as ready as you need to be and still safe.

Ask for help
If you have questions about your gun and its safety, contact the manufacturer. Virtually all of them will provide free information and manuals. If you can't get what you need there, ask your gunsmith. I'd rather see you in his shop than in an autopsy suite.


Al Voth is a lifelong hunter and shooter who recently retired from a career in law enforcement. He now splits his time between forensic contracts and freelance writing. Additionally, he is the author of two novels, B-Zone and Mandatory Reload; the hero of which is, among other things, a hunter.

Comments

Old Levers and Hammers.

I occasionally still will carry my inherited Winchester Model 71 (4 digit serial no.) out in the field.  It is a standard grade but is tight and shoots well.  My eyes are getting a bit dim though for the peep sight.

 

Quick question for you. In

Quick question for you. In the 1st (top) photo, what make/model is the single shot bolt action .22 at the bottom of the picture.

Thanks kindly, Sean.

 

BikerRN's picture

Drives Home

This drives home the point that one has to know their chosen platform.

What is safe for one platform may not be so for another. For example, I would never carry my Colt SAA with six rounds in the cylinder as I rest the hammer on an empty chamber. My Ruger New Vaquero however can safely be loaded with six rounds in the cylinder due to having a transfer bar.

The similarities between the two guns are enough, if one didn't know better, to make one think that the Colt is safe to carry with six rounds in the cylinder if all they were familiar with was the Ruger.

Know Your Weapon, Your Life May Depend Upon It!

Just because things may look alike doesn't mean they are alike.

Biker

groovy mike's picture

a good reminder

Thanks for the excellent piece on traditional firearms Al.

 

This is a good reminder to be safe with these beautiful old girls.  I love the old school guns with external hammers and Damascus barrels.  Yeah I know – you can’t shoot those old wall hangers – well I do!  You just need to use some sense about what loads you put in them and make sure that they are in working order rather than rusted out man-traps.

 

By teh way – if you have an old outside hammer side by side (shotgun, rifle, combination, paradox, or drilling) and don’t want to shoot it, I would be happy to swap you anything on Kmart’s new gun rack in trade so you can hunt with confidence and I can restore the beauty of an old gun that would otherwise gather dust instead of hunt in the sun again.  Email me if you are even thinking about getting rid of or worse de-milling one.

 

But you do need to use some measure of caution with the old hammer guns.  I used to work with a kid (a teenager then – though it is 20+ years ago) who had a fused thumb joint.  He had managed to repeat the accident described in this article pretty near exactly with a 20 gauge single shot shotgun.  He had his hand at the muzzle end of the barrel and it blew his thumb off.  They reattached it but it no longer bent the way that thumbs are supposed to. 

 

Thanks for the safety reminder.  If even just one accidental discharge or (God forbid) accidental shooting can be prevented by all of our warnings, then our writing has paid off in spades.  Well done. 

 

Mike

Old Lever Actions, no substitute.

This is one of my favorite articles I have read one this site.  I am a huge cowboy lever action fan.  I plan one collecting as many as I can.  From the newer versions to as old as I can find and afford.  Thanks for this article its right up my alley. 

groundhog's picture

the 94 win.

I still shoot mine and ya never leave a shell in the chamber!!

jaybe's picture

Great Article!

That's a great tip, Al. I have never seen anyone lower the bolt with the trigger pulled on a loaded bolt action rifle (I do it to mine only when storing it unloaded to ease the pressure on the spring), but I have seen plenty of people who lower the hammer on a lever gun.

 Hopefully, someone will read this and a life will be spared.

  Thanks for the good report.

 

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